Main Article Content
Every organization needs to adopt workforce diversity due to which diverse work team every member has different skills, abilities and capabilities to improve organizational performance The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship and effect between demographic variables especially Age, gender and education background diversity and dependent variable Employee performance among the employees of Higher education sector in Swabi district, KP Pakistan. The data has been collected on cross sectional through questionnaires and simple random sampling technique has been used. The population of this study is 440 faculty members of Higher Education Sector Districts, Swabi KP. Furthermore, the data has analyzed through different statistical technique by using SPSS software .The findings of the study shows that there is positive relationship between independent variables (Age, gender, education background and ethnic diversity) and dependent variable (Employee performance). In last, the study shows the recommendations for further researches and implementation for the individual, organization and policy makers.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Backes-Gellner, U., & Veen, S. (2009). The impact of aging and age diversity on company performance.
Bantel, K. A., & Jackson, S. E. (1989). Top management and innovations in banking: Does the composition of the top team make a difference? Strategic management journal, 10(S1), 107-124.
Bhatia, S., & Arora, R. (2008). Genetic diversity in Kheriâ€”A pastoralists developed Indian sheep using microsatellite markers.
Bhushan, A. (2016). Gender discrmination at Work Place ant its impact on Employeeâ€™s Performance.
Boehm, S. A., & Kunze, F. (2015). Age diversity and age climate in the workplace Aging workers and the employee-employer relationship (pp. 33-55): Springer.
Brown, S. L. (2008). Diversity in the workplace: A study of gender, race, age, and salary level: Capella University.
Byars, R. a. (1993). Supervision: Key link to productivity (4th ed.). Chicago: Irwin.
Carrell, M. R., Mann, E. E., & Sigler, T. H. (2006). Defining workforce diversity programs and practices in organizations: A longitudinal study. Labor Law Journal, 57(1), 5.
Cascio. (2000). Coasting human resource, The financial impact of behavior in organization (4th ed.).
Chaudhry, S. (2016). Role of gender and ethnicity diversity on the performance of employee. International Journal of Research in IT and Management, 6(11), 112-119.
Chew, E. W., Lee, K. M., Tan, S. C., & Tee, S. F. (2011). The effects of workforce diversity towards the employee performance in an organization. UTAR.
Cohen, S. G., & Bailey, D. E. (1997). What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite. Journal of management, 23(3), 239-290.
Connell, R. (2002). Gender. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Cornelius, N. (2001). Human resource management: A managerial perspective: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1991). Explaining sex differences in social behavior: A meta-analytic perspective. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 17(3), 306-315.
Elsaid, A. M. (2012). The effects of cross cultural work force diversity on employee performance in Egyptian pharmaceutical organizations. Business and Management Research, 1(4), 162.
Erasmus, L. (2007). The management of workforce diversity and implications for leadership at financial asset services. University of Johannesburg.
Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of management review, 9(2), 193-206.
Hickman, D. C. (2009). The effects of higher education policy on the location decision of individuals: Evidence from Florida's Bright Futures Scholarship Program. Regional science and urban Economics, 39(5), 553-562.
Hoffman, L. R. (1965). Group Problem Solving1 Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 99-132): Elsevier.
Jehn, K. A. (1995). A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative science quarterly, 256-282.
Jnr, H. J., Money, A., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2007). Research Methods for Business, UK Edition: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, West Sussex England.
Jonathan, S., David, I., & Aparna, J. (2004). Do Birds of a Feather Shop Together. Journal of organizational behavior, 25, 731-754.
Joseph, R., & Selvaraj, P. (2015). The effects of work force diversity on employee performance in Singapore organizations. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(2), 17-29.
Kamal, C. (2013). Introduction to statistical theory part 1. Lahore: Markazi kutub khana.
Kirton, G., & Greene, A.-M. (2015). The dynamics of managing diversity: A critical approach: Routledge.
Khan, F., Khan, Q., Naz, A., & Rasli, A. M. (2016). Effect of Disengagement on Organizational Commitment among Universities Academicians: An Empirical Study. PUTAJ-Humanities and Social Sciences, 23(2), 113-125.
Khan, F., Rasli, A., Khan, Q., & Naz, A. (2017). Factors Affecting Academicians Burnout in Higher Education Institutions: A Systematic Review of Literature. Journal of Gender and Social Issues, 16(1), 75-75.
Khan, F., Mateen, A., Hussain, B., Sohail, M., & Khan, A. (2017). Factors Affecting Job Turnover: A Case Study of Private Schools of District Swat. Sarhad Journal of Management Sciences, 3(01), 46-56.
Kossek, E. E., Lobel, S. A., & Brown, J. (2006). Human resource strategies to manage workforce diversity. Handbook of workplace diversity, 53-74.
Kothari. (2004). Resaech methodology: Methods and technique (2nd ed.). New Dehli: New age international.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
Kumar. (2011). Research methodology a step-by-step guide for begining (3rd ed.): Saga.
Kunze, F., BOEHM, S., & Bruch, H. (2009). AGE DIVERSITY, AGE DISCRIMINATION, AND PERFORMANCE CONSEQUENCES--A CROSS ORGANIZATIONAL STUDY. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings.
Kunze, F., Boehm, S. A., & Bruch, H. (2011). Age diversity, age discrimination climate and performance consequencesâ€”a cross organizational study. Journal of organizational behavior, 32(2), 264-290.
Lewis, T. R., & Sappington, D. E. (1993). Choosing workers' qualifications: no experience necessary? International Economic Review, 479-502.
MAINGI, J. W. (2015). Effect Of workforce diversity on employee performance in Kenya: A case of Kenya School of Government. Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 2(2).
Mecheo, K. N. (2016). The Effect of Employee Cultural Diversity on Organizational Performance: A Case Study of Oilybia-Kenya. United States International University-Africa.
Mwatumwa, A. S. (2016). Effect of workforce diversity on employee work performance: a study of the county government of Mombasa.
Ogbo, A. I., Anthony, K. A., & Ukpere, W. I. (2014). The effect of workforce diversity on organizational performance of selected firms in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(10), 231.
Onen, O. a. (2008). A general guide in writing research proposal and report. A handbook for begining research. Kampla, Uganda: Makerere University.
Pelled, L. H., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Xin, K. R. (1999). Exploring the black box: An analysis of work group diversity, conflict and performance. Administrative science quarterly, 44(1), 1-28.
Rizwan, M., Khan, M. N., Nadeem, B., & Abbas, Q. (2016). The impact of workforce diversity towards employee performance: Evidence from banking sector of Pakistan. American Journal of Marketing Research, 2(2), 53-60.
Robbins. (2009). the Equal oppurtunity.
Roberson, L., & Kulik, C. T. (2007). Stereotype threat at work. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(2), 24-40.
Saeed, R., Lodhi, R. N., Ashraf, H., Riaz, S., Dustgeer, F., Sami, A., . . . Ahmad, M. (2013). Effect of Workforce Diversity on the Performance of the Students. World Applied Sciences Journal, 26(10), 1380-1384.
Saxena, A. (2014). Workforce diversity: A key to improve productivity. Procedia Economics and Finance, 11, 76-85.
Sekran. (2003). Research method for business. A skill building approach (4th ed.). New York.
Zhuwao, S. (2017). Workforce diversity and its effects on employee performance in Higher Education Institution in South Africa: a case study of University of Venda.
Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business research methods: Cengage Learning.