Comparison of national intellectual capital of four Asian countries

Main Article Content

Saeeda Mirza
Sidrah Qaiser


The purpose of this research is to compare the National Intellectual Capital (IC) of four Asian countries, which are Pakistan, China, India, and Bangladesh. This comparison highlights the importance of intangible assets i.e. IC, in the competitiveness of the countries. The IC framework includes Market Capital (MC), Renewal Capital (RC), Human Capital (HC), and Process Capital (PC). The longitudinal data for 6 years i.e. 2014 to 2019 has been studied for four countries. The IC framework is further studied with the help of 21 indicators. The study showed that the selected countries are highly competitive with each other but a few areas are weak. The result for MC showed that in the fiscal year 2016 trend was at its highest for Pakistan. As for India, it was highest in 2015, but Bangladesh faced a major decline in 2018. China's MC was steady up until 2018 but dropped in 2019. Pakistan's HC dropped drastically since 2017, but for Bangladesh and China, MC showed an improved position. PC for Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh showed a downward trend in the year 2019, only China's PC slightly improved. Looking at RC for all the four countries, they showed an improved position in 2019. It also includes recommendations for policymakers. The results showed that IC and competitiveness are positively co-related, and also highlight the importance of further investment in developing the IC of countries.

Article Details

How to Cite
Saeeda Mirza, & Sidrah Qaiser. (2022). Comparison of national intellectual capital of four Asian countries. Journal of Management Info, 9(3), 311–329.
Author Biographies

Saeeda Mirza, Department of Business Administration, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, Pakistan

National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, Pakistan

Sidrah Qaiser, Department of Business Administration, Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan


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