Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;<strong>Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life&nbsp;Sciences (PJMLS)</strong> accepts high-quality original research, full-length articles, review articles, short communications, case reports, objective descriptions, guest editorials, book chapters, reviews in-depth and brief reports in the field of medical and life sciences. PJMLS promotes high-quality research and timely peer review (initial review decision within two weeks). Medical science, PJMLS &nbsp;publishes on a wide variety of medical and related topics including biomarkers, biochemistry, anatomy, biotechnology, immunology, genetics, biodemography, neuroscience, cellular &amp; molecular biology, exercise sciences, physiology, endocrinology, nutrition, toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy, pathology, microbiology, psychology, health services research, clinical trials, Biological insights gleaned in studies from all aspects of life sciences and all health-related disciplines.</p> en-US (Dr. Mohammad Zahid Mustafa) (Dr. Muhammad Imran Qureshi) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Isolation and PCR Based Identification of Staphylococcus Aureus from Oral Cavity of Diabetic Patients in Quetta City <p><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em>&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Diabetes is arising as a health trouble with numerous problems, and its rate of prevalence is greatly increasing all over the world. In diabetic patients’ various types of bacteria colonize the mouth cavity of human beings and thus forming a biofilm structure and cause oral infections like dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis, and xerostomia</em></p> <p><strong><em>Aim: </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></strong><em>The study is aimed to look into the problems of oral hygiene in diabetic patients, with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria. This will pave the ways for further research and better control of bacterial oral infections in diabetic patients.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Through use of sterile cotton swab a total of 100 samples were collected from oral cavity of diabetic patients. For the isolation of pathogenic bacterial species like Staphylococcus aureus Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) was used. </em></p> <p><em>An array of conventional biochemical tests and PCR was applied to presumptively identify the S. Aureus. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Out of 100 samples 67% samples were S. Aureus positive. Out of 50 samples from non-diabetic individuals 29(58%) samples were found positive for S. Aureus, while in diabetic patients out of 50 samples 37(74%) were positive for S. Aureus.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Due to presence of high glucose level in the oral cavity of diabetic patients the population of bacteria is high as compared to normal individuals. Because most of bacteria utilize glucose for their growth</em><em>. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Diabetes, Oral Infections, Pathogenic Bacteria, Oral Cavity, Quetta</em></p> Sumaira Awan Copyright (c) 2020 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Isolation, Conventional and Molecular Identification of Bacillus Cereus and its Incidence in Beef Samples from Quetta <p><em>The current study was conducted to examine the presence of Bacillus cereus in beef samples. B. cereus was isolated from 50 samples among them 29 (58 %) of the samples were positive. A huge number of bacterium was observed in beef samples. Isolates were analyzed through different biochemical tests like catalase, citrate utilization, glucose/galactose fermentation, oxidase, motility and Gram staining. A number of isolates were discovered positive when checked by biochemical tests as well as through PCR (Multiplex polymerase chain reaction). Major degree of genetic similarity is found in the group of Bacillus cereus bacteria. Thus, to efficiently identify and differentiate the Bacillus cereus group, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method was suggested for immediate detection using the groEL and gyrB gene as diagnostic markers. For B. cereus group groEL gene of 400 bp and 475 bp amplicon size for gyrB gene of the B. cereus was yielded. In result the multiplex PCR is proved efficient, simple and rapid for the immediate identification of B. cereus group bacteria in beef samples. </em></p> Abdul Malik Hilal, Zia u Din, Mohammad Ail Khan, Shees Khan, Muhammad Imran Taj, Syed Atta ur Rahman, Syeda Haleema Sadia, Sakina Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 The Nurses’ Performance Regarding Non Pharmacological Pain Management <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The non-pharmacological methods are widely accepted as strategies that may be used independently with mild pain or as a complement to pain medication for moderate or severe pain to ensure adequate relief. There are many types that vary amongst heat/cold, distraction<strong>, </strong>massage, and relaxation. Nursing staff trained may use them independently as part of pain management<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The current study aimed to assess nurses' knowledge and practices concerning non-pharmacological pain management in different pediatric departments in soba hospital. A self-administered&nbsp;questionnaire was used to collect data from 50 nurses<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> results represented that subject had poor knowledge regarding non –pharmacological pain management in children according to a WHO classification that the poor scoring between 0-50%. There was a statistical relation between the years’ experience of subject and knowledge. The conclusion indicates that the Nurses have an unsatisfactory level of knowledge and practice. Improve the application of nondrug interventions should focus on innovative educational strategies, using problem-solving and Regular dissemination of updated information to nurses on these pain management methods to maintain the positive changes. The issue should also be incorporated into nursing schools' curricula.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nurses, Performance, Non-pharmacological, Pharmacological.</p> Amal Elhusein, Hawaa Mohamed , Abdalbasit A. Mariod, Hammad Fadlalmola, Altyeb AbdElazim Copyright (c) 2020 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of Serological Proteins of Breast Cancer Patients Using Bioinformatics Tools <p><em>The primary and most important aim of using bioinformatics tool in this study is to better understand and predict about the proteins and their 3D structure, physio chemical properties and the amino acids sequences. These information about a desired protein is important in the field of Science and Bioinformatics which made it possible for the scientists to learned about the proteins in detail and compare to experimental tools it is more accurate and explains proteins more accurately. In the world many scientists are working on these tools so they can predict different structures and functions of proteins. Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common diseases globally affecting approximately 2.1 million women every year. Proteomics and Bioinformatics play a vital role in the better understanding of Breast cancer proteins with the help of different present bio tools. There were 70 total serum samples of positive BC patients and for the separation of proteins on the basis of their molecular weight. Bioinformatics was applied to all the detected protein’s and their sequence of amino acids.&nbsp; The physiochemical properties show that the detected experimental and theoretical molecular weights of Mucin-1 (MUC-1), 60 kDa heat shock protein (HSP-60), G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 (Cyclin B1), Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) and Myc proto-oncogene protein (C-Myc) was 115 &amp; 119, 59 &amp; 60, 50 &amp; 48,52 &amp; 48.8 and 130 &amp; 135 KDa respectively. Putative transmembrane domains were found highly in HSP60 and Cyclin B1, less and moderately in MUC-1 and HER-2/neu and not shown in C-Myc in end result.</em> <em>The similarity between physio chemical properties of two or more protein can help the biologists to further work on those proteins specifically for Breast cancer diagnostics.</em></p> Sabeera Afzal Sulehri, Zunera Tanveer, Sumaira Awan, Rimsha Rasheed Malik, Syed Haseeb Shah, Mariam Salim, Madiha Sana, Mariam Khaliq Copyright (c) 2020 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0500