Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;<strong>Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life&nbsp;Sciences (PJMLS)</strong> accepts high-quality original research, full-length articles, review articles, short communications, case reports, objective descriptions, guest editorials, book chapters, reviews in-depth and brief reports in the field of medical and life sciences. PJMLS promotes high-quality research and timely peer review (initial review decision within two weeks). Medical science, PJMLS &nbsp;publishes on a wide variety of medical and related topics including biomarkers, biochemistry, anatomy, biotechnology, immunology, genetics, biodemography, neuroscience, cellular &amp; molecular biology, exercise sciences, physiology, endocrinology, nutrition, toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy, pathology, microbiology, psychology, health services research, clinical trials, forensic medicine, health related social sciences.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Biological insights gleaned in studies from all aspects of life sciences and all health-related disciplines.</p> en-US (Dr. Mohammad Zahid Mustafa) (Dr. Muhammad Imran Qureshi) Sun, 01 Oct 2023 11:02:12 -0400 OJS 60 Helicobacter Pylori Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Individuals with Recurrent Epigastric Pain: Lahore, Pakistan <p>A number of stomach diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer, have been related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), creating serious public health concerns. The current investigation aimed to determine the frequency of H. pylori infection and related risk factors in individuals having symptoms of recurring epigastric pain.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The present study involves 191 participants having recurring epigastric pain. Sociodemographic data, blood, and tissue samples were obtained from 112 patients between September 2020 to August 2021. Biochemical and molecular methods were used to estimate the infection frequency.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings revealed that the overall infection ratio was 58% (n=65 out of 112). Males (n=41, 63.1%) contracted the infection more frequently than females. The participants belong to the 26-30 age group (n=37, 56.9%) low socioeconomic status (n=45, 69.2%), resided in rural areas (n=54, 83.1%), and consumed unfiltered water (n=57, 87.7%) had observed with significantly higher infection rates. The regression analysis demonstrated greater probability of contracting infection in male gender (OR 5.91, 95%CI: 2.40-12.9), in 26-35 age group (OR 6.16, 95%CI: 1.75-21.6), tap water users (OR 4.42, 95%CI: 1.72-11.3), rural area residents (OR 3.31, 95%CI:1.39-9.76), and low economic status group (OR 5.26, 95%CI:1.84-16.5) as p&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings revealed the incidence of H. pylori infection (58%) and its associated risk factors in individuals having recurring epigastric pain. The results suggest that larger datasets are needed for future studies to accurately reflect infection frequency and risk factors to diagnose and treat the disease.</p> Amina Hussain, Zahoor Qadir Samra , Aroosha Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Assessment of Prescription Errors and Prescribing Indicators in Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayyed Medical Complex, Quetta, Pakistan <p>The safe use of prescribed drugs is important for a patient’s quality of life. A large no of inappropriate prescriptions will be harmful to patient life and health. The study of the medication use for prescription indicators and prescription errors is important to increase rational drug use. The main reason for conducting this study was to evaluate rational drug use based on WHO/INRUD-core drug use indicators and prescription errors in Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayyed Medical Complex Quetta, Pakistan. A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted from July to November 2022. A total of 300 out-patient prescriptions retained at the hospital pharmacy from April to June 2022 were collected using a random sampling technique in July from the hospital’s records and were evaluated. A total of 878 drugs were prescribed in 282 different prescriptions. The average number of drugs per encounter was 3.1, percentage of the medicine prescribed by the generic name was only 0.11%. The ratio of encounters with an antibiotic was 63.47% and with the injections, it was 1.06%. The percentage of drugs from the essential list was 100%. With respect to prescription errors related to the patient the name, age, weight, gender, and diagnosis were mentioned in 97.87%, 50.35%, 0%, 52.83%, and 2.48% of prescriptions respectively. On account of errors related to the prescriber the prescriber's name, signature, name of the department, directions to use medicines, refilling details, follow-up schedule, drug duplication, and legibility of handwriting were found to be 72.69%, 84.04%, 71.63%, 57.09%, 0%, 0%, 2.83%, and 76.95% respectively. The assessment of commission errors revealed that the dose of the drug, frequency, dosage form, quantity to supply and duration of therapy were mentioned in 32.97%, 78.01%, 95.03%, 34.39%, and 5.67% of the prescriptions. The evaluation of drug-drug interactions reported that 17.02% of prescriptions had interactions and major interactions accounted for 46.15% of the total interactions. Our study depicts that most of the prescribers are not acquainted with WHO guidelines for prescription writing or did not follow the guidelines which could have a serious impact on health and the economy. This study can help in designing policies that will promote the safe and effective use of drugs in the hospital.</p> Faria Ahmed, Qazi Rehan Ahmad, Shabnam Mazhar, Tariq Mehmood, Wazeer Muhammad, Durdana Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Correlation Between Total Leukocyte Count, Neutrophil Count and Appendix Diameter on Ultrasound of Acute Appendicitis Patients The study's aim was to correlate total leukocyte count, neutrophil count and appendix diameter measured on ultrasound of acute appendicitis patients, to find out whether it will help in the accurate and precise diagnosis of acute appendicitis and will decrease the rate of negative appendectomy. This study was a prospective analytical study. Patients who came to the Radiology department with suspected appendicitis and had physical examinations and complete blood count done were included in the study. Their reports were used for analysis after proper informed consent from the patients. Post-operative results were taken from surgeons. A total of 111 patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute appendicitis (AA) were analyzed. The study consisted of 68 male and 43 female patients. AA was found more at the age of 21 years. The diameter of the appendix was mentioned in the reports of 46 patients. Total leukocyte count (TLC) and Neutrophil count (NC) were mostly high in those patients whose appendix diameter was mentioned on the Ultrasound reports. A significant correlation was present between TLC, NC and appendix diameter. There was also a statistically significance correlation (p<0.001) between TLC, NC, appendix diameter and post-operative results. It was concluded from the study that mentioning diameter on ultrasound will help the surgeon make better decisions about surgery. It was observed that if the diameter of the appendix was increased and or secondary signs were seen on ultrasound there are more possibilities of increased TLC and NC of patients having suspected appendicitis. Sadia Safi, Irum Jehan, Anwer Zeb Alam, Ashraf Ullah, Shah Faisal Jamal, Rizwan Ullah, Waqas Ahmad, Aqal Zaman Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Halophilic Fungi: Versatile Microorganisms for Biotechnological Advancements A genus of fungus known as halophilic fungi has evolved special adaptations to thrive in high-salt settings including salt flats, salty lakes, and marine ecosystems. Their potential uses in a variety of industries, including biotechnology, bioremediation, and medicines, have been shown by recent investigations. Halophilic fungi are employed in biotechnology to create enzymes that may be used in industrial processes, such as amylase, protease, and lipase. They can also support bioremediation by reducing pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oil spills, offering a more eco-friendly option to traditional remediation techniques. Halophilic fungi generate secondary metabolites having potential medicinal uses, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, and immuno-suppressants. More investigation into halophilic fungi is necessary given their potential to offer environmentally acceptable solutions to industrial and environmental problems. Shamsuddin Iqbal, Muhammad Sharif Hasni, Yasmeen Malik, Salman Baloch, Rida Aamir Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Detection and Characterization of Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale in Commercial Layer Poultry of Metropolitan Lahore, Pakistan Background: Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacteria linked to respiratory illness, growth retardation, reduced egg output, and death in chickens. The poultry sector in Pakistan is helping to meet the protein needs. Respiratory illnesses are major issues in the poultry industry. A disease-free broiler breed is deemed beneficial to the food supply and economy. The aim of the present study was to detect and characterize the presence of ORT infection in commercial layer poultry of metropolitan Lahore using biochemical and molecular methods. Methods: This cross-sectional study collected 600 tracheal swab samples from commercial chicken shops in three groups (symptomatic, deceased, and physically healthy flocks; 200/ category) in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: The findings of the MacConkey agar test, the triple iron sugar test, and the oxidase test (confirmed by 16SrRNA PCR-analysis) offer a more accurate image of infection diagnosis compared to other biochemical approaches. The ORT infection was shown to be present at a rate of 39% (n = 78) in symptomatic flock samples, 36% (n = 72) in deceased flock samples, and 10.5% (n = 21) in physically healthy flock samples. Additionally, the resistance patterns of ORT isolates to a panel of routinely used antimicrobial drugs were assessed. Isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, florfenicol, and resistant to ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The study concluded that the frequency of ORT infection (n= 600) in commercial poultry was 28.5 percent (n=171). This is the first report of its kind to identify and characterise ORT infection in commercial layer chicken in Lahore, Pakistan. Aroosha Hussain, Zahoor Qadir Samra, Amina Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400