Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences 2023-09-11T15:10:27-04:00 Dr. Mohammad Zahid Mustafa Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;<strong>Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life&nbsp;Sciences (PJMLS)</strong> accepts high-quality original research, full-length articles, review articles, short communications, case reports, objective descriptions, guest editorials, book chapters, reviews in-depth and brief reports in the field of medical and life sciences. PJMLS promotes high-quality research and timely peer review (initial review decision within two weeks). Medical science, PJMLS &nbsp;publishes on a wide variety of medical and related topics including biomarkers, biochemistry, anatomy, biotechnology, immunology, genetics, biodemography, neuroscience, cellular &amp; molecular biology, exercise sciences, physiology, endocrinology, nutrition, toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy, pathology, microbiology, psychology, health services research, clinical trials, forensic medicine, health related social sciences.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Biological insights gleaned in studies from all aspects of life sciences and all health-related disciplines.</p> Effects of dietary supplementation of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) on Production and Haematological Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Level in the Broilers 2023-04-04T00:31:38-04:00 Abdul Naveed Mastoi Babar Hilal Ahmad Abbasi Zeeshan Nawaz Nadeem Rashid Rana Muhammad Bilal Muhammad Shafee Shehzad Ayub Abdul Majeed Afifa Noor Muhammad Iqbal Salah ud Din Ghulam Fareed A study was executed to evaluate the influence of supplementation of garlic powder (GP) on production and hematological parameters and serum cholesterol level in the broilers. In total, 240, day old (Ross 308) broiler chicks were purchased and placed in a completely randomized design to one of five treatment groups with each containing 48 broilers. The treatment groups were replicated thrice with each replicate containing 16 broilers. The experimental rations were formulated by supplementing GP at different concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6g per kg to the basal diet. The results revealed significantly higher feed intake and body weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio in the broilers fed either 4.5 or 6g of garlic powder supplemented diets. Regarding hematological analysis, the broilers fed GP supplemented diets (6g) has resulted in significantly increased packed cell volume, improved hemoglobin percentage, higher red and white blood cell, platelet and lymphocyte counts, enhanced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, whereas reduced monocytes and mean corpuscular volume. Serum cholesterol level was reduced significantly in the broilers fed GP supplemented diets compared to control. In short, dietary garlic powder supplementation has resulted in better production performance, higher dressing percentage, improved hematological profile and reduced serum cholesterol level in the broilers. 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Sub-Clinical Aspects of Hepatitis A, B And C in Ethnic Groups of Panjgur District, Balochistan 2023-06-18T11:27:45-04:00 Shahbaz Nazeer Asim Iqbal Mir Chakar Baloch Balach Khan Muhammad Ismail Basharat Iqbal Mahrukh Naseem <p>Hepatitis is a severe health matter and this study was designed at examining the occurrence of HAV, HBV and HCV specifically in major ethnic groups (Brahui, Baloch, Pashtun, punjabi Sindhi) living in District Panjgur with prior concentration given to the associated risk factors and sub-clinical features. During the study, the overall prevalence was high in males 32.77 % (370/1129) than females 27.63 % (312/1129). Out of total 1129 studied cases, 229 (20.28%) were found to be hepatitis A patients, 375 (33.21%) individuals were suffering from HBV and 78 (6.90%) were suffering from HCV infection. Group-I (1–20 years), Group-II (21–40 years), and Group-III (41–60 years) were used to categorize all the affected people. Infection rates were greatest in age group II (21–40 years). Similar to this, it was found that the majority of the patients had inadequate hygiene. The use of unsterilized medical and dental equipment, accidents, blood transfusions, and unsafe sexual contact were identified as the main risk factors for the spread of viral hepatitis. Fever, muscular pain, jaundice, dark urine and abdominal pain were the most commonly occurred sub-clinical features.</p> <p> </p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Evaluating the Use of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves Powder as A Growth Promoter in Broiler Chicken 2023-04-04T00:28:39-04:00 Zeeshan Nawaz Nadeem Rashid Babar Hilal Ahmad Abbasi Abdul Naveed Mastoi Muhammad Iqbal Salah ud Din Naseeb Ullah Khan Ghulam Fareed Daud Khan A research study was executed to determine the influence of dietary supplementation neem leaves powder (NLP) on production and carcass parameters and immune response in the broilers. Furthermore, invitro analysis regarding antimicrobial and antifungal activities of neem were performed during the study. A total of 225, one day old (Cobb 500) broiler chicks were procured and assigned randomly into one of five treatment groups of 45 broilers each. The treatment groups were replicated thrice, with each replicate containing 15 broilers. The experimental rations were prepared by supplementing neem leaf powder at dose rate of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 and 4.8 g per kg to the basal diet. Feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers fed either 2.4 or 4.8g neem leaves powder supplemented diets. Regarding carcass traits, dietary supplementation of NLP has resulted in higher dressing percentage in the broilers. The organs weight, however, remain unaffected among various treatment groups in the broilers. The broilers fed 4.8g NLP supplemented diet has resulted in an increased antibody titer against sheep red blood cells in the broilers. Eischeria coli and Aspergillus growth were significantly reduced by methanolic and aqueous extracts of neem during in vitro analysis. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of NLP has resulted in an improved production performance, higher dressing percentage and increased immune response in the broilers. 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Understanding the Risk Factors, Involved in the Colonization and Transmission of Streptococcus Pneumoniae in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study 2023-04-01T00:48:02-04:00 Ramsha Tariq Abdul Malik Tareen Zunera Tanveer Nargis Haider Kakar Irfan Shahzad Sheikh During the past decades Streptococcus pneumoniae has developed a global burden by causing pneumococcal disease such as pneumonia, bacteremia & meningitis. This study was planned to find out the potential risk factors of colonization of the Streptococcus pneumoniae in children. For the purpose, nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 5years from immunization center of Quetta district. A pre-developed questionnaire were given to the parents, which include demographic (age, gender, parent’s occupation) risk factors ( schooling , siblings , exposure to tobacco) & awareness based questions (knowledge about pneumococcal disease etc) From the outcomes of this study it was revealed that housing and smoking were key risk factors in the transmission and carriage of pneumococcal disease. 38% participants were exposed to smoking/tobacco & the frequency was higher in those participants where 5-8 person were living in the same room (56.92%), most of the participants were from ethnic group “Pashtoon”, 79.87% participants were already vaccinated however, most of the participants were unaware of pneumococcal disease. So we have concluded that nasopharynx is an ecological niche for pneumococci, the above mentioned risk factors facilitates pneumococci to colonize & cause disease. 2023-07-02T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Screening of Risk Factors and Subclinical Aspects for Hepatitis A, B and C in the Hospitalized Drug Addictives in “Treatment And Rehabilitation Center” in District Kech, Balochistan 2023-06-18T14:08:28-04:00 Balach Khan Asim Iqbal Mir Chakar Baloch Muhammad Ismail Shahbaz Nasir Basharat Iqbal Mahrukh Naseem <p>Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem this study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of HAV, HBV and HCV in the injectable drug users (IDUs) admitted in Treatment and Rehabilitation Center for Drug Addicts in District Kech, with prior concentration given to the associated risk factors and sub-clinical aspects. During the study, a total of 436 IDUs blood simple were tested for the confirmation of HAV, HBV and HCV infections in Teaching Hospital Turbat<em>. </em><em>The socio-demographic data (e.g., age, gender, literacy, vaccination, economical and marital status), associated risk factors were also recorded in the questionnaire-based study</em><em>. </em>All the infected individuals were divided into three age groups i.e. group-I (10- 20 Yrs), group II (21-40Yrs) and group-III (41- 60 Yrs<em>).</em><em>Out of these 436 tested IDUs</em>372 (85.32%) was found to have HAV, HBV and HCV infections. Out of 372 infected IDUs 13.30% (58/436) were infected with HAV, 30.73% (134/436) were infected with HBV and 41.28% (180/436) were infected with HCV. The prevalence of hepatitis infection was highest in group II 259/436 (59.40%), followed by group III 61/436 (13.90%), however least prevalence was found in group-I 52/436 (11.92%). The collected data showed that majority of hepatitis patients maintained the poor hygiene condition 246/436 (56.42%). A relatively lesser number of patients 126/436 (28.89%) were observed to have good hygiene condition. The most serious risk factors of HAV, HBV and HCV infections in IDUs of Treatment and Rehabilitation Center were notably the use of unsterilized syringe which is 75.92% and it’s shearing among themselves for injecting drugs, followed by hair dressing tools (30.50%), unsterilized surgical tools (25.46 %).</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Evaluation of Genetic Lineage of Hazara Sub-Tribes Through Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) 2023-07-12T02:49:25-04:00 Masooma Irfan Shahzad Sheikh Niamatullah Kakar Heera Batool The Hazaras counting over 7 million, are primarily found in central Afghanistan and southwest Pakistan's Quetta contributing about 0.09 percent of Pakistan's overall population, Hazaras are one of the unique but minor ethnicities. Studies have been done on Hazara people through Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) but there is no any study on the genetic lineage of Hazara sub-tribes. Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have a key role in the forensic study these days. These short tandem repeats (STRs) contain short nucleotide repeats which vary from individual to individual and can be used in fingerprinting in modern days. There is a wide usage of STRs such as genetic lineage, historical background, paternity testing, finding culprits in harassment and theft cases because small amount of DNA is required to process the study. The Hazara population, with their distinctive genetic profile, offers a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic lineage of sub-tribes within this minority group. Understanding the genetic diversity and ancestry of Hazara sub-tribes can shed light on their migration patterns and historical origins. By employing Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), which exhibit high variability and can be easily analyzed, this study aims to unravel the intricate genetic landscape of Hazara sub-tribes in Quetta, Pakistan. The findings from this research will not only contribute to the scientific knowledge of Hazara genetics but also have implications for forensic investigations, population studies, and paternity testing. Furthermore, the utilization of STRs in this study highlights the importance of this molecular tool in unraveling the complex genetic identities of human populations. Through a comprehensive analysis of genetic lineage using STRs, this study will provide valuable insights into the genetic diversity and sub-tribal structure of the Hazara population in Quetta. 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Techniques for Monitoring Immune Responses in Animals Post Vaccination in the Era COVID-19 2022-08-05T09:34:55-04:00 Nasrullah Nadia Jamil Sheziab Saddiqui Shahid Mahmood Chuhan Waqar Hassan Maliha Wajeeh Zahra Zahid Piracha Ali Dino Kamran Khan Muhammad Waqar Younas Abbasi Muhammad Zohaib Khan Saeed Khan Rahat Bano Saher Tariq Muhammad Rashid Kamran Ullah Mujtaba Babar Saifullah Khan <p>The immune response is a critical aspect of an organism's defense against pathogens and diseases. Monitoring immune responses in animals is essential for understanding the mechanisms of immunity, developing vaccines, and evaluating the efficacy of immunotherapies. This review article discusses various techniques for monitoring immune responses including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Serum virus neutralization (SVN) test, Haemoagglutination (HI) test, flow cytometry, ELISpot assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and imaging techniques for vaccine developed, the techniques monitoring both cellular and humoral immune response which are most important for vaccine machine understanding and mechanism. DNA vaccines have emerged as a promising approach in the field of immunization due to their ability to induce robust and long-lasting immune responses against a wide range of pathogens and diseases. Understanding and monitoring the immune responses elicited by DNA vaccines are crucial for assessing their efficacy, safety, and potential for clinical applications. This review article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the various techniques used for monitoring immune responses against DNA vaccines, with a focus on key immunological parameters, experimental methodologies, and recent advancements. Additionally, we discuss the significance of these monitoring techniques in advancing the development and optimization of DNA vaccine<em>s.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Genetic Configuration of Mitochondrial DNA Among Hazara Tribes 2023-08-03T05:13:30-04:00 Heera Batool Irfan Shahzad Sheikh Lyba Tanveer Masooma The Hazara people are one of just a few ethnic groups whose origin is unknown. Hazaras' ancestral homeland is Hazarajat. It is the third-largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. According to the ancient history, Hazaras are believed to be of Turko-Mangol origin because of Turk and Mangol tribes. The Hazaras speak Hazaragi and are divided into many sub-tribes. The Hazara sub-tribes have not been extensively studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup/haplotypes, despite their unique genetic makeup and historical migration patterns. Mitochondria are specialized energy-producing organelles which contain their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA has distinct properties, such as a lack of recombination, a faster evolutionary pace, haploid maternal inheritance, and a larger copy number each cell and high rates of variation which is highly useful in challenging situations, such as those involving deteriorated and outdated samples. Mitochondrial DNA has become a widely used genetic marker that provides a distinctive maternal ancestry depiction of a person's genetic pin code worldwide. There are three hypervariable regions of mtDNA. HVR regions I and II show the greatest amount of individual differences, as these are highly polymorphic and have the highest levels of variation in the mtDNA making it a valuable tool for identifying human genome. Since these sections lack genes, they exhibit a mutation rate that is 10 times higher than the coding area. 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Morpho-nutritional Attributes of Two Varieties of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) in Semi-Arid Environment of Quetta, Balochistan 2023-05-14T00:31:48-04:00 Abdul Waseem Bakht Zareen Rahim Basira Akhtar Kanval Shaukat Shaista Anjum Tariq Ismail The Semi-arid environment is a type of an environment characterized by a scarcity of rainfall and high levels of evaporation, resulting in arid and often unpredictable weather conditions. Semi-arid environments have a significant impact on the morphology, production, and nutrient values of various plants including watermelon varieties. This study conducted to assess the impact of semi-arid climate on a morphological parameter, proximate, and mineral analysis of two varieties of watermelon in a semi-arid environment of Quetta Balochistan. The morphological parameters assessed were main stem length, number of primary branches and its length, number of leaves on the main and secondary branches, number of nodes, fruit weight, and rind thickness. The results were statistically non-significant (p>0.05) foe growth attributes. However, the proximate analysis showed a statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in their crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre, and carbohydrate content. The mineral analysis also revealed significant differences in their nitrogen, potassium, sodium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron content. While phosphorus showed non-significant difference. These findings suggest that the two varieties of watermelon have different nutritional compositions and mineral content, which can have implications for their cultivation and consumption. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the morphological and nutritional characteristics of watermelon varieties grown in a semi-arid environment, which can aid in selecting and breeding varieties suitable for this region. 2023-06-30T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Utilization of Indigenous Fodder Resources for Optimizing Livestock Feed Management in Balochistan, Pakistan 2023-09-11T15:10:27-04:00 Abdul Aziz Hassni Sajid ul Hassan Qureshi Asadullah Hafiz Muhammad Ali Abdul Majeed Abdul Salam Baloch Mansoor Ahmed Irfan Shahzad Sheikh Abdul Qayyum Sakina Khan Babar Hilal Ahmad Abbasi Muhammad Ali Khan Balochistan, Pakistan, is characterized by its semi-arid and arid climate, posing unique challenges for livestock management. The study delves into the nutritional aspects of locally cultivated fodders, namely lucerne, berseem, and sorghum, uncovering variations in their composition. Lucerne emerges as a valuable protein source with higher protein content compared to berseem and sorghum, while the latter two contribute significantly to roughage due to their higher fiber content. The availability of dry matter and crude protein from Kharif and Rabi fodders underscores their importance in sustaining livestock populations, especially during the Kharif season. Industrial by-products, such as wheat bran, rice husk, and rice polishing, show promise as supplementary feed sources, offering a means to bridge nutritional gaps in livestock diets. These by-products provide additional energy and nutrients, thereby enhancing livestock productivity. Balochistan's prevailing livestock feeding practices primarily rely on grazing and locally cultivated fodder, yet these practices may not fully meet nutritional requirements, resulting in suboptimal health and productivity. The study advocates for a more balanced approach, emphasizing mixed feeding, which combines grazing, cultivated fodder, and supplementary feed. This approach holds potential for improving livestock health, meat, and milk production, and economic returns for farmers. However, achieving balanced feeding practices in Balochistan faces several challenges. These include the seasonal variability in fodder quality and availability, limited awareness of optimal feeding strategies among farmers, and restricted access to supplementary feeds. Addressing these challenges is crucial to promoting sustainable and efficient livestock management practices in the region. 2023-09-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences Diversity and Distribution of Resident Avian Fauna of North-Eastern Region of Quetta District, Balochistan 2023-08-13T02:00:05-04:00 Noor Ahmad Saeed Ahmed Essote Muhammad Kamran Taj Shahab Ud Din Kakar Muhammed Aslam Asad Ullah Shakil Ahmad Mansoor Ahmed <p>The current study was conducted in the North-Eastern region (Takatu, Murdar and Zarghoon Mountain ranges with associated plain areas including residential areas) of the Quetta district of Balochistan. During the present study, a sum of 30 resident avian species (18 passerine and 12 non-passerine) belonging to 18 families and 24 genera were recorded. Among the total 30 resident species 28 were found in wild habitats, 11 in human residents of the central city area and 9 inhabiting both wildlife and residential areas. Anthropogenic activities such as Construction/ developmental activities like industrialization zone in/near Takatu region, pollution, Deforestation, Habitat degradation and Disturbance including Fragmentation and Mining, local increase in population/ human population pressure, immigration to the surrounding areas of the city (in or near wildlife habitats) are potential threats which affect wildlife including avifauna of the region. To support and conserve the resident avifauna, it is recommended to plant all-season varieties of flowering plants, and fruiting trees, to provide artificial nests and facilitate existing nesting sites for avifaunal species. This study also recommends the implementation of conservation plans and community-based conservation initiatives.</p> 2023-07-02T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pak-Euro Journal of Medical and Life Sciences