Ethnoveterinary Scrutinization of Herbal Therapies for The Treatment of Livestock of Tehsil Zafarawal, District Narowal, Punjab (Pakistan)


  • Hafsa Razzaq Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, AJK
  • Nida Naz Department of Botany, Government College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Safora Muhammad Shafique Department of Botany, Government College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Amin Khalid Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, AJK
  • Maham Noor Department of Botany, Government College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Amina Mushtaq Department of Botany, Government College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan



Medicinal plants, Phytochemical constituents, Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis



Introduction: Traditional wisdom is essential to promoting coexistence between people and the natural world, is what keeps Pakistan's agriculture dependent on domesticated cattle. Ethnoveterinary medicine incorporates traditional knowledge of herbal therapy that is vital to maintaining the health of cattle in underdeveloped countries such as Pakistan. This study used qualitative analysis, quantitative indices, and Chi-square testing to investigate the utilization of common herbs as alternative medications for cattle in Tehsil Zafarwal, District Narowal.

Objective:   The study's goal was to record the ethnoveterinary knowledge of regional plant species, their phytochemical components, and how these plants are used to make remedies.

Methodology: Information was gathered using questionnaires and interviews with hakims, herbal dealers, and indigenous people. Relevant information was supplied by 80 sources. The research included 30 plant species from 28 genera and 19 families, describing the phytochemical components that can be used to prepare remedies. The following quantitative indicators were used to analyze the data and noteworthy facts included in this work: Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL), Relative Frequency Citation (RFC), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), and Jaccard Index (JI). For data analysis, the Chi-square Test was employed.

Results: The results of the study reveal that herbs were the dominant plants which belong to 12 species which comprise 40% of the plants studied. The parts of the plant widely used for the study is leaves which were collected in the raw form fresh from the plants and then widely used to make medicines. Among the 19 families which are studied, Families: Cucurbitacce, Myrtaceae, Poaceae and  Umbelliferae are the most dominant. The quantitive idices of the study include use value which is highest for Trigonella foenum graecum. The fidelity level was highest for Allium sativum and the highest consensus factor was 0.95 (postpartum disorders) and 0.94 (milk production). Relative frequency citation was also highest for Allium sativum and the Jaccard index ranged from 3.17 to 9.1.

Conclusion: The main conclusions of this study offer important insights into ethnoveterinary medicine and emphasize the significance of certain plant species in conventional veterinary care, which will aid in the development of phytomedicines.


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