Determination and Assessment of Bacterial Infection and its  Antimicrobial Resistance in Pregnant Women in Quetta, Balochistan


  • Zartasha Yousaf Department of Zoology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Abdul Samad Center for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology (CASVAB), University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Zil-E-Huma Department of Zoology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Inamullah Syed Deparment of Zoology, Government Boys Degree College, Pishin, Pakistan
  • Sadia Jaffar Department of Zoology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Saadullah Department of Microbiology, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS), Quetta, Pakistan
  • Syed Ashrafuddin Department of Biochemistry, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Changaiz Khan Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sandeman Provincial Hospital, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Asma Yaqoob Education Department, Government Girls High School, Kalat, Pakistan
  • Shazia Gul Muhammad Department of Zoology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan



Antimicrobial activity, Bacterial infection, Pregnant women, Quetta, Urinary tract infection


The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of UTI-causing bacteria and to identify drugs with significant biomedical importance for treating these infections. A sample of 100 pregnant females from Quetta City, Balochistan, was examined using two methods: the conventional method and the molecular method, to identify the microbial pathogens responsible for UTIs.

The presence of S. aureus was identified in 65% of cases using the conventional/biochemical method and in 70% of cases using the PCR method. E. coli was observed in 59% of cases using the conventional/biochemical method and in 63% of cases using the molecular method. The presence of E. fecalis was recognized in 51% of cases using the conventional/biochemical method and in 55% of cases using PCR, while K. pneumoniae was detected in 25% of cases using the conventional/biochemical method and in 36% of cases using PCR.

The antimicrobial results revealed that all isolated bacterial pathogens (E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and E. fecalis) were resistant to Amoxicillin. S. aureus was sensitive to Erythromycin (a Macrolide antibiotic). Ciprofloxacin, a Fluoroquinolone antibiotic, showed sensitivity to all four strains of bacterial pathogens: K. pneumoniae, E. fecalis, S. aureus, and E. coli. Another Fluoroquinolone antibiotic, Norfloxacin, showed sensitivity to K. pneumoniae and E. fecalis. Gentamycin, an Aminoglycoside antibiotic, was sensitive to K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, while Aminoglycoside antibiotics were sensitive to E. fecalis.

The study suggests that PCR testing is the most specific and sensitive method for identifying bacteria causing UTIs in urine samples. In conclusion, maintaining personal hygiene and using appropriate and recommended drugs are necessary to prevent UTI infections.


Andrews SJ, Brooks PT, Hanbury DC, King CM, Prendergast CM, Boustead GB, McNicholas TA. Ultrasonography and abdominal radiography versus intravenous urography in investigation of urinary tract infection in men: prospective incident cohort study. BMJ. 2002 Feb 23;324(7335):454.

Cunningham FG, Lucas MJ. 7 Urinary tract infections complicating pregnancy. Baillière's clinical obstetrics and gynaecology. 1994;8(2):353-73.

Delzell Jr JE, Lefevre ML. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. American family physician. 2000;61(3):713-20.

Swanson SK, Heilman RL, Eversman WG. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy. Surgical Clinics of North America. 1995;75(1):123-42.

Patterson TF, Andriole VT. Bacteriuria in pregnancy. Infectious disease clinics of North America. 1987;1(4):807-22.

Winters JC, Dmochowski RR, Goldman HB, Herndon CA, Kobashi KC, Kraus SR, Lemack GE, Nitti VW, Rovner ES, Wein AJ. Urodynamic studies in adults: AUA/SUFU guideline. The Journal of urology. 2012;188(6):2464-72..

Fleming VH, White BP, Southwood R. Resistance of Escherichia coli urinary isolates in ED-treated patients from a community hospital. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2014;32(8):864-70.

Laupland KB, Ross T, Pitout JD, Church DL, Gregson DB. Community-onset urinary tract infections: a population-based assessment. Infection. 2007;35:150-3.

Kunin CM. Chemoprophylaxis and suppressive therapy in the management of urinary tract infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 1994;33(suppl_A):51-62.

Silverman JA, Schreiber HL, Hooton TM, Hultgren SJ. From physiology to pharmacy: developments in the pathogenesis and treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections. Current urology reports. 2013;14:448-56.

Ferry SA, Holm SE, Stenlund H, Lundholm R, Monsen TJ. Clinical and bacteriological outcome of different doses and duration of pivmecillinam compared with placebo therapy of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in women: the LUTIW project. Scandinavian journal of primary health care. 2007;25(1):49-57.

Fihn SD, Latham RH, Roberts P, Running K, Stamm WE. Association between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection. Jama. 1985;254(2):240-5.

Shulman ST, Friedmann HC, Sims RH. Theodor Escherich: the first pediatric infectious diseases physician?. Clinical infectious diseases. 2007;45(8):1025-9.

Humayun T, Iqbal A. The culture and sensitivity pattern of urinary tract infections in females of reproductive age group. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci. 2012;8(1):19-22.

Dimetry SR, El-Tokhy HM, Abdo NM, Ebrahim MA, Eissa M. Urinary tract infection and adverse outcome of pregnancy. The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2007;82(3-4):203-18.

Shaheen HM, Farahat TM, Hammad NA. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women and possible risk factors. Menoufia Medical Journal. 2016;29(4):1055.

Sheikh MA. Incidence of urinary tract infection during pregnancy. EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2000; 6(2-3):265-271.






Research Article