Women empowerment in trade union movements: A strategy for national and economic development

Main Article Content

Mustapha Alhaji Ali
Sani Garba Wakili
Fatima Shehu Liberty


Nigerian Trade Union (NTU) serves as a platform to safeguard and guarantee the interests and rights of workers in government organizations, regardless of gender and age. There is, however, a contrasting trend with regard to women empowerment in the trade Unionism in the Northern region. Hence, this study examines the participation of women in Nigerian trade union movements of Northern region. This study adopts a qualitative method of data collection. A total of eleven respondents from the Northern region were interviewed using unstructured questions. MAXQDA 2018 software version is used to analyze the data obtained from the field. In explaining the topic under investigation, the study has adopted the following two theories as a tool of research analysis: Empowerment and Social Constructivism theories. The key framework of these theories is largely premised on women empowerment and gender equality. These theories emphasize on the need for empowering women and gender fairness in every organization. The basis of the Social Constructivism theory is that gender inequality is socially constructed. The findings of this study demonstrate that women in the Northern region are not adequately empowered in the trade union movements this is because most of them are often subjugated to domestic activities. Therefore, the study recommends that the Nigerian government should enact national policies and strategies to encourage women participation and empowerment in the trade union movements in the region. The study adds that there is a need for women to be educated on gender discrimination by implementing the 35 percent Geneva Affirmative Action.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ali, M. A. ., Wakili, S. G. ., & Liberty, F. S. . (2021). Women empowerment in trade union movements: A strategy for national and economic development. Journal of Economic Info, 8(3), 130–145. https://doi.org/10.31580/jei.v8i3.2057


Afigbo AE. (1991). Women as a Factor in Development, in M. O. Ijere (ed.) Women in Nigerian Economy. In Enugu: Acena Pub.

Agu, S. (2007). Gender equality, education and women empowerment: The Nigerian challenge. Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development, 8(2), 1-7. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Gender-Equality%2C-Education-and-Women-Empowerment%3A-Agu/018c952ce5c1b450a1cc5c9be1a122bb2ea54cd3

Ali, A. M., Zakuan, A. A. U. A., & Mohammad, B. Z. (2018). Northern Nigerian Women Participation in Trade Union Movement: Impediments and Solutions. Journal of Humanities and Cultures Studies R&D, 4.

Ali, M. A., & Hamidu, I. (2016). An assessement of factors affecting women participation in trade Union Activities in Yobe State, Nigeria. Administration and Development, 6(1), 236-252.

Ali, Q., Parveen, S., Yaacob, H., Zaini, Z., & Sarbini, N. A. (2021). COVID-19 and dynamics of environmental awareness, sustainable consumption and social responsibility in Malaysia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-20. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-021-14612-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14612-z

Anugwom, E. E. (2009). Women, education and work in Nigeria. Educational Research and Reviews, 4(4), 127-134. https://academicjournals.org/article/article1379603133_Anugwom.pdf.

Anyim, F. C., Kuye, O. L., & Ekwoaba, J. O. (2012). Women Participation in Nigerian Trade Union Movement: A Strategic and Socio-Psychological Viewpoint. Journal of Management Research, 4(1), E17. http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v4i1.1088. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v4i1.1088

Asaju, K., & Adagba, S. O. (2013). Women participation in national development in Nigeria: the imperative of education. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 3(1), 57-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v3i1.3214

Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1976). The social construction of reality. New York: Dou- bleday. http://www.perflensburg.se/Berger%20social-construction-of-reality.pdf

Bohan, J. S. (1993). Regarding gender: Essentialism, constructionism, and feminist psychology. Psychology of women quarterly, 17(1), 5-21. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00673.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00673.x

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. sage. file:///Users///MustaphaAlhajiAli/Downloads/braunclarkethematicanalysismanual.pdf

Cobble, D. S. (2012). Gender equality and labor movements: Toward a global perspective. Commissioned Report, American Center for International Labor Solidarity, 1-71. https://www.solidaritycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Rutgers-Gender-Equality-and-Labor-Movements.pdf

Ertan, S. (2016). How to study gender equality policy cross-nationally? Aggregate or disaggregate gender equality policy indices?. Social Indicators Research, 125(1), 47-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0841-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0841-1

Gergen, K. J. (1992). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1986-00014-001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/10112-044

ILO Report. (2016). Labour force female (% of total labour force).

Imhonop, D., & Urim, U. M. (2011). The development of labor movements and state interference: The Nigerian experience. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(2), 236-253. http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/4078/#.YZBQ473P3fZ.

Kanu, I. A. (2012). The equality of sexes in JS Mill vis-a-vis the participation of women in the Nigerian labour and economy. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies, 1(1), 18-29. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/laligens/article/view/107911

LalaRukh F. (2009). Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

Longwe, S. (1990). Gender link for equality and justice. https://www.ndi.org/sites/default/files/Guide%20to%20Gender%20Analysis%20Frameworks.pdf

Makama, G. A. (2013). Patriarchy and gender inequality in Nigeria: The way forward. European scientific journal, 9(17). https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/236407158.pdf

Melville, S., & Goddard, W. (1996). Research methodology: An introduction. Juta: Kenwyn.

Momoh, A. M. (2008). Nigeria, Gender participation in trade unionism In Southwest. International Journal of African & African American Studies, 7(2).

Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Profile of Women and Men in Nigeria.

NTU Handbook. (2017). Nigerian’s Trade Union Movements Handbook.

NTU Report. (2017). Nigerian’s Trade Union Movement Report.

NTU Report. (2018). Nigerian’s Trade Union Movement Report.

Oluyemi, M. O. (2015). Monitoring Participation of Women in Politics in Nigeria. National Bureau of Statistics, 1–14. http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/gender/Finland_Oct2016/Documents%5CNigeria_ppt.pdf

Otobo, D. (1996a). The Theory and Practice of Industrial Relations and Trade Unionism in Nigeria: A General Theoretical Framework, Paper Presented at NBEG’s 2nd National Seminar on Industrial Relations, held in Lagos.

Otobo, D. (1996b). The Theory and Practice of Industrial Relations and Trade Unionism in Nigeria: A General Theoretical Framework, Paper Presented at NBEG’s 2nd National Seminar on Industrial Relations, held in Lagos. 1–12.

Parveen, S., Senin, A. A., & Umar, A. (2015). Organization culture and open innovation: A quadruple helix open innovation model approach. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 5. https://www.econjournals.com/index.php/ijefi/article/view/1399

Qureshi, M. I., Parveen, S., Abdullah, I., & Dana, L. P. (2020). Reconceptualizing the interventions of open innovation systems between the nexus of quadruple organization cultural dynamics and performance. Quality & Quantity, 1-21. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11135-020-01078-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-020-01078-3

Tufts, S. (2009). Hospitality unionism and labour market adjustment: Toward Schumpeterian unionism? Geoforum, 40(6), 980–990. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.08.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.08.008

Unger, R. K. (1983). Through the looking glass: No wonderland yet!(The reciprocal relationship between methodology and models of reality). Psychology of women quarterly, 8(1), 9-32. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1983.tb00614.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1983.tb00614.x

Wabba, A. (2017). Address of the President of Nigerian Labour Congress, to Opening Session of the 4th National Gender Conference of NLC.