A Study of Factors Affecting Travel Decision Making of Tourists

Main Article Content

Adina Shafi Shaikh
Areesha Dars
Keenjhar Memon
Abdul Ghafoor Kazi


Tourism is considered as one of the major sources for creating employment opportunities, generating revenues and supporting culture and entertainment. Travel and tourism plays a vital role by associating themselves with other industries of Pakistan which leads to rise in foreign investment, opportunities of trade, investments in private, local development, and public infrastructure. This study aims to explore the influence of the factors (travel decision making, media, perceived risk, terrorism and safety & security) tourists’ decision making of tourists residing in Pakistan. This is a quantitative study, data was collected from 50 people using questionnaire at 5-point Likert Scale. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and regression method. The results of this study depict that role of media, safety & security, and terrorism have significant impact on travel decision making. Within the context of Pakistan terrorism is always a highlighted area on which every tourist think a lot while making a destination choice. Particularly negative media coverage also has significant importance on travel decision making of a tourist. In Pakistani context, this study found that risk perception was supposed more than the actual risk because travel decision to a new place is always riskier somehow, therefore, it has no effect on travel decision making. Tourist develops an insight that what factor is more significant in travel decision making. This study recommends that media, safety and security and terrorism policies are critical for Pakistan to cater the number of tourist by helping them in travel decision making.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shaikh, A. S. ., Dars, A. ., Memon, K. ., & Kazi, A. G. (2020). A Study of Factors Affecting Travel Decision Making of Tourists. Journal of Economic Info, 7(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.31580/jei.v7i1.1157


Alananzeh. (2016). Impact of Safety Issues and Hygiene perceptions on customer satisfaction , 45-48.
Amara, D. (2012). Tourists’ risk aversion and willingness to take risks: the case of tourists visiting Egypt after 25th January revolution.
Arana, J. L. (2008). the impact of terrorism on tourism demand. Annals of Tourism Research , 299-315.
Baker, D.M.A. (2014). the effects of terrorism on the travel and tourism industry. international journal of religios and pilgrimage , 9.
Cohen, S. A., Prayag, G., and Moital, M. . (2014). Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences, and opportunities. Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 17 , 872-909.
Dellaert, B.G.C., Arentze, T.A. and Horeni, O. . (2014). Tourists' mental representations of complex travel decision problems . Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 53 , 3-11.
Enders, W. and sandler, T. (2006). Distribution of Transational Terrorism among Countries by Income Class and Geography after 9/11. International Studies Quarterly , 367-393.
Garg. (2015). Travel Risks v/s Tourist decision: Making a Tourist perspective , 52.
Garg, A. (2009). Crisis in Hospitality and Tourism: A study on the impacts of terrorism on Indian Hospitality and Tourism Industry. M M University Journal of Management Practices , Vol.3 (1&2), 1-12.
Gartner, W. C. (1994). Image formation process. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing , 191-215.
Hall C.M., Timothy D.J. & Duval D.J. . (2003). Safety & Security in Tourism: Relationships, Management and Marketing. . New York: Haworth Hospitality Press .
Henderson, J. (2007). Tourism Crises- Causes, Consequences and Management. USA: butterworth-Heinemann .
Kelly, J. (2016). Volumtourism Worldwide.
Konferenciakalauz.hu. (2009). Socio Demographic constraints to travel behaviour.
Korstanje, M. (2010). September 11 and perception risk theory. Pasos, revista de turimso y Patrimonio Cultural , 8(2), 389-402.
Kotler, P. R., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. . (2013). Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (6th ed.). Prentice Hall.
Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., Setiawan, I., . (2010). Marketing 3.0. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New Jersey , 8-9.
Min, K. S., Martin, D., & Jung, J. M. (2013). Designing advertising campaigns for destinations with mixed images: Using visitor campaign goal messages to motivate visitors. Business research , 66(6), 759-764.
Moutinho, J. (2000). Strategic management in tourism. Wallingford: CABI Publishing. 7.
Narangajavana, Y., Callarisa Fiol, L. J., Moliner Tena, M. Á., Rodríguez Artola, R. M., & Sánchez García, J. (2017). The influence of social media in creating expectations. An empirical study for a tourist destination. Annals Of Tourism Research , 6560-70.
Nejati and Mohamed,. (2015). Investigating the key factors influencing the traveldecisions of International Tourist , 31-33.
Raithatha, Y. (2017). Understanding the economic impact terrorism has on the destination decision making: Northern Irish tourists (Doctoral dissertation, Dublin Business School).
Roscoe, J. T. (1975). Fundamental research statistics for the behavioral sciences.
Schlagheck, D. M. (1988). International Terrorism. Lexington MA: Lexington Books
Seddighi, M.W. Nuttall, A.L. Theocharous H.R. (2001). Does cultural background of tourists influence the destination choice? An empirical study with special reference to political instability. Tourism management, 22(2), pp. 181-191
Sharifpour et al. (2014). Tourist experience of a place. 11-13.
Stafford, G., Yu, L., & Armoo, A. K. (2002). Crisis management and recovery: How Washington D.C. hotels responded to terrorism. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 43, 27-40.
Welledits, V. (2016). People’s Perceptions and Behavior towards Destinations that have been affected by Terrorism. Unpublished Bachelors Thesis, Modul University Vienna, Austria.

Most read articles by the same author(s)