Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://readersinsight.net/APSS <p>Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences provides a versatile tool tailored to your conference publishing requirements. Publishing your proceedings on Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences is very affordable and accessible by the readership is open without registration or charge. Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences is run by the Connecting Asia Research Network for the scientific community. Moreover, the online publication process is fast thanks to the software system that runs the entire editorial procedure. Conference organizers are thus provided with a very convenient, web-based tool for running the publication of the proceedings.</p> Readers Insight Publisher en-US Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences 2663-662X REGULATION MATTERS: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIAN-INDONESIAN’S E-HAILING REGULATION FRAMEWORK https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1324 <p><em>E-hailing, which is also known as ride-hailing or ride-sourcing, has been on the rise across the globe. However, it is known as a disruptive innovation as unregulated services have triggered major disruptions and led to certain setbacks in the transportation industry. It has been blamed for the rise in privacy and safety issues, unfair business competition, and a decline in demand in the traditional taxi industry. In response to these issues, certain countries have started to regulate the e-hailing industry. The objective of this study is to identify, analyze, and contrast on the form and enforcement of Malaysian-Indonesian’s e-hailing regulation framework by using qualitative-comparative research. In this study, literature has been gathered from credible online sources. Based on the results of the study, there are commonalities and differences between the Malaysian and Indonesian’s e-hailing regulation framework. Furthermore, the implications of the study have been discussed</em><em>.</em><em>&nbsp;For instance, </em><em>t</em><em>he current state of the e-hailing industry is underregulated rather than unregulated. Policy makers should seek to improve existing regulation framework rather than starting new regulations from ground up to minimize the risk of overregulation that might eventually diminish the industry.</em></p> Dorothea Chee Ke Jing HONG LIP GOH Hen Kai Wah Lim Yee Wui Low Suet Cheng Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-04-25 2020-04-25 6 3 188 191 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1324 CONSUMER-ORIENTED APPROACH FOR SUSTAINABLE ADVANTAGE OF HOME-GROWN BRANDS IN MALAYSIA FAST FASHION INDUSTRY https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1275 <p>Malaysian Fashion Brands (MFBs) have faced fierce competitions in fast fashion industry coming from short production-cycle and international fashion brands which have mushroomed every major shopping malls across Malaysia. MFBs cannot position themselves as a leader in mass-production category and being perceived low in equity. This study explores on Consumer-based Model (CBM) adapted from Keller’s Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) Model (1993) to build Strong Brand Equity through brand knowledge which cognitively built in marketing-mix over time with Independent Variables of Brand Awareness, Brand Image and Purchase Intention to predict Dependent Variable of Strong Brand Equity. Brand Loyalty are tested as a mediator and Community Engagement as moderator in the relationships of IVs and DV. Quantitative research method is employed in a non-probability convenient sampling technique. As many as 2850 questionnaires were distributed with the success rate of 29.7%. After data screening, only 798 datasets were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS version 25 and SmartPLS version 3.2.8 on 6 constructs and 17 latent variables. The findings show that Brand Loyalty has full mediator effects meanwhile, Community Engagement has low to none moderating effects thus, weakening the relationships between IVs and DV. Overall, MFBs are perceived low in brand equity. Therefore, further efforts are needed to build Strong Brand Equity for MFBs’ sustainable advantage.</p> Siti Fatimah Hashim Rosita Mohd. Tajuddin Amer Shakir Zainol Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-04-26 2020-04-26 6 3 192 198 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1275 AN EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE UNIT https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1299 <p class="AICAbstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; letter-spacing: 0pt; font-weight: normal;">Puskesmas is the most strategic "health service unit" in the health service system in Indonesia. Since the era of decentralization, and the effective implementation of the National Health Insurance as the sole guarantor for Preventive, Curative and Rehabilitative diseases, the Puskesmas Unit has sought to meet service standards, especially personnel in the Public Health Efforts section. The purpose of this research is to look at the effect of Innovative Work Behavior, Human Resource Competency, Self-Efficacy to Human Resource Performance Through Person-Job FIT, expected to be in line with the needs of the times. The population in this study was the Head of the Puskesmas, Structural Position and Functional section in the Batam City Puskesmas, totaling 185 respondents using the census method, used as the sample population. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM). The software used for structural analysis is AMOS 23, and for descriptive studies using SPSS 23. The results of the study indicate that Self-Efficacy is more prominent than other variables as the main formers of the Influence of Performance of Puskesmas HR in Batam City. By having the appropriate competence and coupled with confidence in the ability possessed to perform their duties, Employee Performance will increase.</span></p> Jogie Suaduon Arman Syarif Andika Prasetya Nugraha Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-04-27 2020-04-27 6 3 199 203 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1299 Psychological Determinants of Job Search Intention Among Fresh Graduates for the Supply of Labour Force in the Digital Era https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1301 <p>This study aims at exploring the psychological determinants that influence job search intention among fresh graduates. Digital innovations have changed the employment landscape that allows people to have flexible job opportunities. Building from the theory of planned behaviour, job search attitude, subjective norms, self-efficacy and perceived behaviour control were predicted to have positive effect on job search intention. A survey was conducted and the results of the regression test show job search attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy as determinants to job search intention, but the relationship between perceived behavioural control and job search intention was found to be negative. In fact, the strongest linkage is between self-efficacy and job search intention. The findings should alert employers, academic institutions and policy makers of the recent trend in employment, as the fresh graduates are one of the most valued supply of labour force. The study also highlights how digital era and the cyber community have shaped the younger generations perception of work engagement as the transition towards social mobility.</p> NOOR ZALINA ZAINAL HANITAHAIZA HAIRUDDIN ERNE SUZILA KASSIM Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 6 3 204 210 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1301 Factors Contributing to the Successful Business of Street Market Food Vendors https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1242 <p class="AICAbstractText" style="margin: 6.0pt 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 120%;">Micro-entrepreneurship (ME) plays an important role in the country’s economic development in generating urban informal economy. Street market business can be classified as micro-entrepreneurship which in most cases the business has no employees besides the owner. High levels of unemployment and economic crisis led to the increasing number of street market vendor as a mean of survival and its ability to provide basic needs at affordable prices to the surrounding communities. This paper presents an analysis of the success factors contributing to the street market food vendors in selected street market in Malaysia. We highlight and identify some key factors that positively affect their sales revenue. A qualitative approach using focus group discussion method has been used to gain an in-depth understanding of success factors. A mini focus group discussion and exploration of issues were conducted. Business success was measured based on individual, environmental and organizational factors which can be divided into controllable and uncontrollable factors. The results indicate that individual factors specifically business experience is an important success factors that positively affect sales revenue. The paper also comes to the conclusion that individual, environmental and organizational factors were found positively and significantly related to the success of street market food business.</span></p> Nur Atiqah Rochin Demong Erne Suzila Kassim Noor'ain Mohamad Yunus Melissa Shahrom Sri Fatiany Abdul Kader Jailani Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-17 2020-05-17 6 3 211 216 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1242 The Combating Fraud and the Challenge of Political Willingness: Evidence from Nigerian Public https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1334 <p>The purpose of this paper is to explore the lack of political willingness in Nigeria as a challenge to combating fraud among public employees. This study is a qualitative approach. The sources of data collection involve government reports, newspapers, and interviews. In all, 12 participants were employed for the study. The study found that a lack of political willingness in Nigeria shows a persistent challenge to combat fraud. Our findings suggest that (1) political intervention, (2) party system or political party and (3) lack of commitment from the government make fraudulent practices in Nigerian public sector (NPS) perennial. Thus, it has hindered the effort to combat fraud in NPS. This study has practical implications for regulators (like CBN), and anti-corruption bodies such as EFCC, ICPC, AMCON, and CCB. The study could perhaps redirect their efforts and eases the way of mitigating fraudulent practices in Nigeria's public sector. The study also has an academic contribution to the body of knowledge and insight to the literature. This paper is original and unique in its form and has the value on fraud prevention, detection of corruption, combating the contemporary fraud cases in the Nigerian public sector, and useful to those who might cherish its standing.</p> Shehu Umar Sa'id Khairul Saidah Abas Azmi Abdullahi Bala Alhaji Ali Usman Idrith Ahmed Yusif Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-17 2020-05-17 6 3 217 221 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1334 THE POSITION OF CHILD TESTIMONY IN SEXUAL OFFENCES IN SHARIAH AND CIVIL LEGISLATION IN MALAYSIA https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1337 <p>Testimony is an important method of proof of evidence used in courts.&nbsp; The purpose of this paper is to examine previous studies and research related to testimony by children involved in sexual offences in courts. The focus of this paper would be on the provisions of laws relating to evidence given by a child as an accused and victim; and the procedures applicable in Malaysia based on the three existing courts i.e. Shariah Courts compared with Courts for Children and Courts for Sexual Offences Against Children i.e. to explore relevant issues on its admissibility for further review and reform. The outcome from this study will ascertain whether the current laws are adequate to protect the rights of child during trial.</p> Asmida Ahmad Mohd. Nasran Mohamad Mohd. Al Adib Samuri Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 6 3 222 225 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1337 The Effectiveness of Using Infographics as an Aid for Reading Comprehension https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1224 <p>Reading comprehension is one of the most vital skills that is needed in acquiring a language. However, the Malaysian pupils seem to have not master the skill and this have resulted in pupils lacking a good reading skill especially when it comes to English language. Therefore, it is important for the pupils to have a support system which would enable them to make better connection with their reading materials. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using infographics to enhance reading comprehension among the primary school pupils with average and weak English language proficiency. The data of this research was collected through tests before the intervention and after the intervention. The data were collected from the test and was analysed. The finding of this research shows that there is a significant improvement of the mean score from the pre-test to the post-test. As this research has proven that the use of infographics was effective in enhancing reading comprehension among the pupils, it will benefit the teachers to use the intervention to help the pupils to comprehend the text better and also to will enable the pupils to experience fun their reading session.</p> Revathy Manickam Azlina Abdul Aziz Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-25 2020-05-25 6 3 226 229 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1224 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DIGITAL COMPETENCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1373 <p class="AICAbstractText" style="margin: 6.0pt 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 120%;">Digital technologies have become powerful tools in today society in many aspects. However, without proper knowledge and guidance, youth is being challenged with potential hazards of cybercrimes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare who is at a greater risk of cybercrimes, and to assess whether there is a significant difference in the digital competency between girls and boys at rural areas. Digital competence was measured as technology, cognitive, ethical knowledge and communication, and cybersecurity was measured as intellectual property, privacy, accuracy and accessibility. Questionnaires were distributed to selected secondary schools. Based on the t-test analyses of 211 responses, the findings indicate there is a significant difference in the attitude toward ICT usage between male and female students, as well as significant differences in the behavior of troubleshooting, staying safe online and being credible and in the ethical knowledge. Comparing the cybersecurity traits, gender differentiates the privacy concerns, accuracy and accessibility behavior. As the results are alarming, specific concerns and focus must be placed on youth digital technology usage and education for ensuring they are not neglected, and exposed as cyber victims, but also to raise a responsible e-society with excellent digital citizenship attributes. </span></p> Siti Noorsuriani Maon Naffisah Mohd Hassan Noorain Mohammad Yunus Sri Fatiany Abdul Kader Jailani Erne Suzila Kassim Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 6 3 235 239 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1373 THE INFLUENCE OF PURCHASING ORIENTATIONS, ONLINE TRUST AND ONLINE PURCHASE EXPERIENCE TOWARD CUSTOMERS' ONLINE PURCHASE INTENTION https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1376 <p>This study examines the factors influencing customers' online purchasing intentions. A questionnaire was administered to a group of 584 respondents through the purposive sampling method. Data were analyzed via the Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) approach to examine the posited research hypotheses. The PLS-SEM approach revealed that impulse purchase orientation was the strongest predictor of customers' online purchase intention in Malaysia. This was followed by an online purchase experience, and then online trust and quality orientation. It is also discovered that brand orientation does not significantly influence customers' online purchase intention in Malaysia. This research is helpful to online retailers in the development of business strategies and also the academicians to conduct further research by adding a new variable in the mix for generation and evolution of the concept. The originality of the paper is its investigation of the determinants as the predictors in the proposed theoretical framework and the Decomposed <em>Theory</em> of Planned Behavior (<em>DTPB</em>) as the underpinning theory for this study, something that has been overlooked in prior studies. The results underpin new and extensive inputs into marketing theory and enlarge the emergent literature related to customers' purchase intention in online shopping in Malaysia. Directions for future research are offered.</p> Nasrul Fadhrullah Isa Imelda Albert Gisip Sharifah Nurafizah Syed Annuar Nelson Lajuni Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 6 3 240 246 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1376 Global Movement of Inclusive Higher Education Policies: The Trends and Practices in the Nigerian Higher Education System https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1392 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The concept of inclusion has its origin from special education, which was recently branded by UNESCO as Education for All (EFA). However, looking at it beyond basic education, inclusive higher education is an area that recently got attention even among the developed countries. This is seen as the incorporation of students with different disabilities into various of academic disciplines of their choice in higher education. Similarly, this is expected to come along with policies, practices, and programmes that will govern the flexibility, facilities, and resources that would enable this category of students to complete their studies along with non-disabled peers and take pride in their identity. Consequently, the intention of this paper is to explore the trends and practices of Nigerian higher education system in an effort to ensure inclusive higher education. In order to achieve the stated objectives, this study employed document and content analysis to obtain data and other relevant information from both the macro and micro levels. Accordingly, one of the major findings of this study shows that there was no clear policy in the Nigerian higher education system for inclusive education. However, higher educational institutions were discovered to give a few privileges specifically on entry requirements and provide a few outdated facilities to help this category of students. As a result, this paper strongly recommends immediate policy borrowing and contextualisation for inclusive higher education policies from countries that enacted and implemented such policies with positive outcomes.</p> Muhammad Muftahu Nordin Abd. Razak Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 6 3 254 260 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1392 Diversity in Higher Education: Does Institutional Differentiation Exist in the Nigerian Higher Education System? https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1393 <p>The concept of inclusive leadership tends to be understood from different perspectives and contexts. However, there is a consensus that inclusive leadership has proven to be one of the effective leadership styles for ensuring sustainable development. Clearly, this is embedded in the leaders’ ability to recognise bias, demonstrate an open mindset, and most importantly have the ability to acknowledge and empower others, especially those at sub-managerial level who are mostly in touch with the realities of policy implementation within an institution. While studies have proven the impactful role of middle-level management towards organisational performance, it was clear that the middle-level management at the universities are those set of leaders that are usually in full engagement with the university community including lecturers and students, thereby making them wholly responsible for the implementation of university policies at micro level. However, this class of leaders seems to be excluded or not fully recognised in deliberating and taking managerial decisions in the university leadership. Consequently, the intention of this paper is to critically conceptualised the six empirically acknowledged concepts of inclusive leaders and leadership framework by Bourke and Dillon which are courage, commitment, cognisance of bias, curiosity, cultural intelligence as well as collaboration and fully contextualised them in higher educational institutions with respect to straightening the relevance of middle-level management in leading universities.</p> Muhammad Muftahu Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 6 3 261 265 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1393 Inclusiveness in Higher Education Leadership: The Impact of Straightening the Relevance of Middle-Level Management in Leading Universities https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1394 <p>The concept of inclusive leadership tends to be understood from different perspectives and contexts. However, there is a consensus that inclusive leadership has proven to be one of the effective leadership styles for ensuring sustainable development. Clearly, this is embedded in the leaders’ ability to recognise bias, demonstrate an open mindset, and most importantly have the ability to acknowledge and empower others, especially those at sub-managerial level who are mostly in touch with the realities of policy implementation within an institution. While studies have proven the impactful role of middle-level management towards organisational performance, it was clear that the middle-level management at the universities are those set of leaders that are usually in full engagement with the university community including lecturers and students, thereby making them wholly responsible for the implementation of university policies at micro level. However, this class of leaders seems to be excluded or not fully recognised in deliberating and taking managerial decisions in the university leadership. Consequently, the intention of this paper is to critically conceptualised the six empirically acknowledged concepts of inclusive leaders and leadership framework by Bourke and Dillon which are courage, commitment, cognisance of bias, curiosity, cultural intelligence as well as collaboration and fully contextualised them in higher educational institutions with respect to straightening the relevance of middle-level management in leading universities.</p> Muhammad Muftahu Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 6 3 266 271 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1394 WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) EDUCATION: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1382 <p>Globally, women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. Although women’s participation in higher education is increasing, they are still significantly underrepresented in STEM fields. It is important to understand the forces at play, which drive women's choice of STEM education. A variety of factors impact the choice of females to take STEM path including personal (I.e. self-concept, self-efficacy, personal preferences, self-stereotyping and intrinsic motivation) as well as the external factors (i.e. role models, family, teacher’s influence as well as low recruitment of women in STEM fields). This paper systematically reviews the literature on young women’s intention to undertake STEM education in Malaysian context. The paper has adopted the PRISMA protocol for Systematic Literature Review (SLR). The paper has identified 10 research papers which have attempted to identify the factors effecting female participation in STEM education in Malaysian context. Furthermore, the paper has also highlighted the factors which have been identified by these studies as well as those personal and external factors which have not been studied extensively in Malaysian context. This paper can give readers a novel insight about factors influencing women’s participation in STEM education in Malaysian context</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sadia Sajid M Sultana Alam Jin Kuan Kok Mobashar Rehman Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 6 3 230 234 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1382 The Demographic Shifts in West African Countries: Implications for Access to Higher Education in Nigeria https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1391 <p>Africa as a continent is so far the fastest growing in the entire world where the projections indicted that the population of the continent would increase by 50% in the next two decades. Presently, the population of the region stands at 1.2 billion and the West African states consist of 15% of the total number while Nigeria accounts for nearly 200 million people with 44% of the people under 15 years old. Consequently, the purpose of this research paper is to see how the demographic change has implications for access to the Nigerian higher education system with a specific focus on university education. In order to understand this phenomenon, this research engaged in secondary data analysis as a technique to obtain information in achieving the study’s objectives. Subsequently, even though the total number of secondary school graduates or output was not accessible for this study, the analysed data from the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) indicated that 1,687,551 and 1,557,017 students sat for university matriculation examinations in Nigeria for 2016 and 2017 academic sessions respectively, in which 97% of the candidates were seeking admission to universities specifically. Similarly, the data indicated that over 65% of the candidates have met the required points to be admitted into universities. On the other hand, data from the National Universities Commission (NUC) showed that there are a total of 91 public universities in Nigeria including both the federal and state universities with a capacity of less than 500,000, showing that more than 50% of the qualified students will be left unadmitted. Consequently, this study strongly recommends adequate demographic shift consideration while planning the national higher education policies in relation to access to university education and higher educational institutions in general.</p> Muhammad Muftahu Hazri Jamil Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 6 3 247 253 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1391 FACTORS AFFECTING THE REVERSAL OF GENDER DISPARITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS (HEIS): A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW https://readersinsight.net/APSS/article/view/1489 <p>The commencement of higher education has observed male dominance for a very long time. However, over the past two decades, this situation has reversed. Male students are considered as a new minority in higher education institutions. This phenomenon is prominently observed in industrialized countries of the world and termed as ‘changing gender disparity’ in higher education institutions. Countries like the U.K., USA, Netherland, Germany and France are noticeable examples of the changing gender disparity. According to the U.S. Department of Education, the year 2019 observed a significant increase in female students’ participation (more than 56%), whereas male students have deteriorating participation in higher education institutions.&nbsp; The European countries tend to have a similar trend whereby female students are outnumbering male students in terms of enrollment in higher education institutions. These changing gender disparity measures could result in social imbalance, causing severe social problems. For this purpose, it is crucial to determine the factors that caused the reversal of gender disparity in higher education institutions. In this context, this paper systematically reviews the literature on the factors causing less male participation in higher education institutions. The paper has adopted the PRISMA protocol for Systematic Literature Review (SLR). The paper has identified research papers that have attempted to identify the factors affecting less male participation in higher education. Furthermore, the paper has also highlighted the factors which have been identified by previous peer reviewed studies. The findings of this paper can be a potential source of information for further studying the issue related to the reversal of gender disparity, thus contributing significantly towards the relevant literature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M Sultana Alam Zakee Saadat Copyright (c) 2020 Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 6 3 272 276 10.31580/apss.v6i3.1489