Housing, Low-cost, Low-income, Perception, Residents, Well-being, culture.

How to Cite

Bashari, S., & Hashim, A. H. (2019). THE HOUSING DESIGN FOR RESIDENTIAL LIVABILITY: THE LOW-INCOME EARNER PERSPECTIVE. Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences, 4(2), 11-13.


In Nigeria, statistics has shown that over 7 out of every 10 people live below the minimum poverty level and 9 of every 10 are in the low-income group (Fadairo & Olotuah, 2013). This indicates that, these people cannot provide housing for themselves, they need intervention from government through public low-cost housing. Public Low-cost housing has been defined as constructed public residential houses funded  by the government or in partnership with the government under the public-private partnership (PPP) scheme, to provide affordable housing for low-income people  (Ayoola & Amole, 2014; Makinde, 2014a). The results indicated that, there is need to consider users preferences in construction of public low-cost housing so as achieve maximum satisfaction.

Research Objectives

The purpose of this paper is to explore the design of public low-cost housing in Jigawa State, Nigeria and assess how residents perceived the housing units in relation to their culture since housing units are constructed or an intervention of the government for low-income earners. Thus, the paper would serve as a blueprinted government, housing policy makers and housing developers to understand that, the housing constructions and infrastructural elements should reflect the cultural background of the beneficiaries. Views of beneficiaries before and after construction of public low-cost housing are of great importance.


This research was conducted through both qualitative and quantitative approaches. In qualitative aspect, three respondents were interviewed to express their perception on the public low-cost housing design, while quantitative aspect assessed the residential housing attributes of low-cost housing estates with view to identify the most important housing attributes considered by the residents through descriptive statistics and Relative Importance Index (RII). This was achieved through a well-structured questionnaire administered to the residents of public low-cost housing of Jigawa state, Nigeria although without considering other categories of housing type and high-income people. Previous studies such as Lukuman, Sipan, Raji, and Aderemi (2017), Tanko, Abdullah, and Ramly (2017) and Adegoke (2016) used RII on various studies.


The results indicated that, the design of public low-cost housing in Jigawa State, Nigeria does not reflect the culture of the residents, most of the residents are not satisfied with it. In addition, out of fifty five (55) constructs from five (5) housing-related dimensions, the result identified thirty two (32) important attributes out of these, the residents considered twelve (12) to be the most important attributes affecting their well-being.


The residents of public low-cost housing preferred the housing design that will ensure privacy of their family in term of; provision of wall demarcation; more number of bedrooms, toilets and the position of main entrance should not face directly to the main street/road. The residents also, found sharing of toilets system and common roofing as part of housing design that affect the well-being. Other public low-cost housing attributes that perceived and ranked as the most important to them are; Masjid, social interaction, neighbors’ friendliness and helpful. Therefore, future construction of public low-cost housing in Jigawa State should incorporate these attributes/items in order to improve the well-being of the residents.


I appreciate the effort and proper supervision given to me by the chairman of my supervisory committee in person of Prof. Ahmad Hariza Hashim (PhD) and Co-supervisors; Prof. AsnarulKhadi Abu Samah (PhD) and Associate Prof. Nobaya Ahmad.


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