Hybrid Entrepreneurial Intention: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Employees


hybrid entrepreneurship
public sector
private sector

How to Cite

Farooq, M., & Talib, N. (2019). Hybrid Entrepreneurial Intention: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Employees. Journal of Research in Psychology, 1(1), 17-22. Retrieved from http://readersinsight.net/jrp/article/view/522


This paper examined the influence of personality related factors pertinent to perceived behavioral control in the context of theory of planned behavior.  Moreover, a comparative analysis was executed to see the variance in the effect of the selected factors with respect to sector of employment in Pakistan. Offline and online survey data was collected from multiple cities across Pakistan using purposive and convenience sampling technique. Regression analysis was run to analyze the data. The findings revealed that the degree of creativity influencing hybrid entrepreneurial intentions varies between public and private sector employees in Pakistan. However, Self-efficacy impacts such intentions approximately in the similar manner in the two sectors of employment.  The findings highlight interesting area where public organizations lack as compared to private organizations in terms of creativity of employees. This study extends the body of knowledge on hybrid entrepreneurship in Pakistani settings. This research is among the initial endeavors which undertake a comparative analysis of public and private sector employees towards their hybrid entrepreneurial intentions.



Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity: Hachette UK.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215. doi:10.1037//0033-295X.84.2.191
Baron, R. A., & Markman, G. D. (2018). Toward a process view of entrepreneurship: The changing impact of individual-level variables across phases of new firm development. In Current topics in management (pp. 45-63): Routledge.
Bird, B., & Jelinek, M. (1988). The operation of entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 13(2), 21-29.
Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 18(4), 63-77.
Bruton, G. D., & Ahlstrom, D. (2003). An institutional view of China's venture capital industry: Explaining the differences between China and the West. Journal of business venturing, 18(2), 233-259.
Campbell, J. R., & De Nardi, M. (2009). A conversation with 590 nascent entrepreneurs. Annals of Finance, 5(3-4), 313-340.
Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295-316.
Douglas, E. J., & Fitzsimmons, J. R. (2013). Intrapreneurial intentions versus entrepreneurial intentions: distinct constructs with different antecedents. Small business economics, 41(1), 115-132.
Folta, T. B., Delmar, F., & Wennberg, K. (2010). Hybrid entrepreneurship. Management Science, 56(2), 253-269.
Forbes, D. P. (2005). Are some entrepreneurs more overconfident than others? Journal of business venturing, 20(5), 623-640.
Ford, C. M. (1996). A theory of individual creative action in multiple social domains. Academy of management Review, 21(4), 1112-1142.
Gird, A., & Bagraim, J. J. (2008). The theory of planned behaviour as predictor of entrepreneurial intent amongst final-year university students. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(4), 711-724.
Hisrich, R., & Brush, C. (1984). The woman entrepreneur: Management skills and business problems.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations: Sage publications.
Indudewi, R., & Yuanita, F. (2015). Success factors of hybrid entrepreneur: Case study of Universitas Ciputra academician.
Krueger Jr, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of business venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432.
Krueger, N. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 18(1), 5-21.
Liñán, F., & Chen, Y.-W. (2006). Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample.
Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross–cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 33(3), 593-617.
Low, M. B., & MacMillan, I. C. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges. Journal of management, 14(2), 139-161.
Marsh, H. W., & O'Neill, R. (1984). Self description questionnaire III: the construct validity of multidimensional self‐concept ratings by late adolescents. Journal of Educational Measurement, 21(2), 153-174.
Maslow, A. H. (1971). Self-actualization: Big Sur Recordings.
Olawale, S. G., Adeniyi, E. O., & Olubela, O. I. (2010). Creativity fostering behaviour as an index of productivity and capacity building among lecturers in selected universities in Ogun and Oyo States. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(5), 257-262.
Ozgen, E., & Baron, R. A. (2007). Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: Effects of mentors, industry networks, and professional forums. Journal of business venturing, 22(2), 174-192.
Phipps, S. T. (2012). Contributors to an enterprising gender: examining the influence of creativity on entrepreneurial intentions and the moderating role of political skill controlling for gender. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 18(1).
Raffiee, J., & Feng, J. (2014). Should I quit my day job?: A hybrid path to entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4), 936-963.
Reynolds, P., Bosma, N., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I., . . . Chin, N. (2005). Global entrepreneurship monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998–2003. Small business economics, 24(3), 205-231.
Segal, G., Borgia, D., & Schoenfeld, J. (2005). The motivation to become an entrepreneur. International journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & research, 11(1), 42-57.
Silvia, P. J., Martin, C., & Nusbaum, E. C. (2009). A snapshot of creativity: Evaluating a quick and simple method for assessing divergent thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4(2), 79-85.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
Thorgren, S., Nordström, C., & Wincent, J. (2014). Hybrid entrepreneurship: the importance of passion. Baltic Journal of Management, 9(3), 314-329.
Van Gelderen, M., Brand, M., van Praag, M., Bodewes, W., Poutsma, E., & Van Gils, A. (2008). Explaining entrepreneurial intentions by means of the theory of planned behaviour. Career development international, 13(6), 538-559.
Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of management Review, 14(3), 361-384.
Zacharakis, A., Bygrave, W. D., & Shepherd, D. A. (2000). Global entrepreneurship monitor: national entrepreneurship assessment, United States of America: 2000 executive Report: Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership at the Ewing Marion Kauffman ….
Zampetakis, L. A., & Moustakis, V. (2006). Linking creativity with entrepreneurial intentions: A structural approach. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(3), 413-428.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.