Open innovation has so far been studied mainly in high-tech, multinational enterprises. This conceptual paper on innovation ecosystem studies scrutinizing open innovation practices that has been applied by firms focusing on small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Within the review, we defined the innovation ecosystem, explaining on the innovation issues in SMEs, open innovation as well as close innovation. SMEs pursue open innovation primarily for market-related motives such as meeting customer demands, or keeping up with competitors. Their most important challenges with open innovation are securing the trade secrets. However, SMEs have option either to proceed with open innovation or closed innovation. Open and close innovation has its benefit and weakness; therefore SMEs must identify their main objectives in the business. The future directions of this issue are discussed.
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