Science Proceedings Series http://readersinsight.net/SPS <p>Science Proceedings Series provides a&nbsp;versatile&nbsp;tool tailored to your conference publishing requirements. Publishing your proceedings on SSP is&nbsp;very affordable&nbsp;and accessible by the readership is&nbsp;open&nbsp;without registration or charge. SPS is run by the Connecting Asia Research Network for the scientific community. Moreover, the online publication process is&nbsp;fast&nbsp;thanks to the software system that runs the entire editorial procedure. Conference organizers are thus provided with a very convenient, web-based tool for running the publication of the proceedings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Readers Insight Publisher en-US Science Proceedings Series 2663-9459 Prediction human skin temperature in comfort level http://readersinsight.net/SPS/article/view/857 <p class="AICAbstractText" style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 120%;">Thermal comfort is the human subject perceive satisfaction to the work environment. The thermal comfort need to be achieve towards productive working environment. The comfort level of the subject is affected by the human skin temperature. To assess the skin temperature with the sorrounding by conducting human experiment in the climatic chamber. It is rigorous and complex experiment.This study was developed to predict human skin temperature in comfort level with the finite element method and the bioheat equation. The bioheat equation is a consideration of metabolic heat generation and the blood perfusion to solve heat transfer of the living tissue. It is to determine the skin temperature focussing at the human arm. From the study, it is found that the predicted skin temperature value were in well agreement with the experimental results. The percentage error insignificant with acceptable error of 1.05%. </span></p> Zaina Norhallis Zainol Masine Md. Tap Haslinda Mohamed Kamar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-18 2019-05-18 1 3 1 4 10.31580/sps.v1i3.857 Direct ultrasound synthesis of vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst for partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride http://readersinsight.net/SPS/article/view/861 <p><em>Three VPO catalyst were prepared via direct ultrasound technique using organic, sesquihydrate and dihydrate routes, denoted as VPOuo, VPOus and VPOud respectively. These catalysts were synthesised solely on direct ultrasound technique and calcined in n-butane/air mixture. All catalysts exhibited well-crystallised (VO)<sub>2</sub>P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub> phase. VPOus and VPOud showed α<sub>II</sub>-VOPO<sub>4</sub>, which led to an increase in average oxidation state of vanadium. All catalysts were showing O1s approx. 530 eV, similar P2p value and V2p<sub>3/2</sub> at approx. 517 eV, giving vanadium oxidation state of approx. 4.0 – 4.2. FE-SEM micrographs showed the secondary structure consisting of thin plate-like crystals in different sizes agglomerate to each other due to cavitation effect. HR-TEM demonstrated the existence of polycrystalline phase. The nature of the oxidants was investigated by TPR in H<sub>2</sub>. VPOus showed highest amount of total removal of oxygen species suggesting that it had highest activity compared to VPOuo and VPOud. </em><em>The XANES measurement of these catalysts showed </em><em>the occurrence of vanadium oxide reductions in flowing hydrogen gas, which indicates the presence of V<sup>4+</sup> and V<sup>5+</sup> species. Catalytic tests demonstrated that the activity and selectivity to maleic anhydride increased with direct ultrasound technique. This study showed that catalyst synthesis time can be reduced to only 2 hours and giving polycrystalline particles compared to conventional method.</em></p> Silver Goo Loong Kong Leong Yap Yeow Hong Lin Kuen-Song Chiang Chao-Lung ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-18 2019-05-18 1 3 5 7 10.31580/sps.v1i3.861 A Structured 8 Disciplines Methodology To Develop Problem Solving Skills Among Engineering Students During Internship :A Systematic Literature Review http://readersinsight.net/SPS/article/view/863 <p>Current survey shows there are 1 out of 5 graduates are unemployed (Site, 2018). Lack of non technical skills among graduates be one of the main reason for unemployment.Data shows Problem Solving Skills is the second most important non technical skill sought by employers (To et al., 2019); The studies show that the problems cannot be solved by using the same kind of thinking approach applied at the moment it was created. Therefore, a systematic analytical skill is required to handle the engineering related problems happening at manufacturing environment or engineering workplace. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing literature about Problem Solving skills for graduate engineers through a systematic literature review. This paper analyses literature through electronic databases mainly from Scopus and Web of Science. This paper summarizes types of problem solving skills applied in the engineering field as of now. Based on that, engineers can differentiate and understand the approach of the problem solving skills in the industrial environment to improve the failures and increase productivity.</p> MURUGAN SUBRAMANIAM Muhammad Khair Noordin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-18 2019-05-18 1 3 8 11 10.31580/sps.v1i3.863 The Chicken Utilization Of Α-Keratin Of Waste Chicken Feathers In Enviromental As Adsorben Of Procion Red And Remazol Yellow Dye http://readersinsight.net/SPS/article/view/865 <p>as the adsorbent. The adsorption characterization of activated chicken feathers by Na<sub>2</sub>S 0.1 N and non-activated chicken feathers was determined. Effect of variation experimental parameters pH, Contact time and variation dye concentration also being investigated in a batch adsorption method. Procion and Remazol Yelloow were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy</p> <p>VV</p> <p>The results show that the contact time and pH condition for adsorption equilibrium are 120 min for activated chicken feathers and 100 min for chicken feathers which were not activated by Na<sub>2</sub>S at pH 3. Procion red dye absorption by activated and not activated chicken feathers follows Freundlich isotherm and follow Langmuir isothrem. For remazol yellow dye absorption by activated and not activated chicken feathers follows Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isothrem and the reaction kinetics follow the Ho equation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: adsorption, chicken feather, procion red, remazol yellow</p> SAGA DERMAWAN DWI LAKSANA ERICK RYAN YULIANTO EDI PRAMONO ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-18 2019-05-18 1 3 12 14 10.31580/sps.v1i3.865 The PIONEER PLANT ADAPTATION AT THE POST COAL MINING RECLAMATION AREA IN EAST KALIMANTAN INDONESIA http://readersinsight.net/SPS/article/view/871 <p>Coal mining activities change the environment physically, chemically and biologically that affect post-mining vegetation.</p> <p>&nbsp;Reclamation and revegetation of post-coal mining land to restore the potential Kalimantan land as important production factor for crop cultivation.</p> <p>&nbsp;The pioneer plant function was to helps micro and macro ecosystems of post-coal mining environmental to be more stable. Kalimantan Island has many pioneering species, the most dominant is <em>Macaranga</em> <em>gigantea</em>, <em>Trema</em><em> t</em><em>omentosa</em>, <em>Alstonia</em> <em>scholaris</em>, <em>Croton argyratus</em> and <em>Homalanthus</em> <em>populneus</em>.</p> <p>&nbsp;Indicator of canopy growth to find out land cover creates a micro climate, fertility, input of forest plants and wild animal feed. <em>Homalanthus</em> <em>populneus</em>, <em>Trema</em><em> t</em><em>omentosa</em>, <em>Alstonia</em> <em>scholaris</em> show optimal canopy growth.</p> <p>&nbsp;Three of the five pioneer species studied, <em>Alstonia</em> <em>scholaris,</em> <em>Homalanthus</em> <em>populneus</em>, <em>Croton</em> <em>argyratus</em> has optimal growth. <em>Homalanthus</em> <em>populneus</em> is a pioneer that can adapts well in open areas, especially post-mining land.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Liris Lis Komara Nanang Sasmita I Gusti Ayu Diah Yuniti Jhon Hardy Purba ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-06-04 2019-06-04 1 3 15 18 10.31580/sps.v1i3.871 LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR MANGROVE CONSERVATION AREA IN LOMBOK BAY ON KUTAI NATIONAL PARK, EAST KALIMANTAN INDONESIA http://readersinsight.net/SPS/article/view/872 <p>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Along with the times and community needs for land, the carrying capacity of mangrove forests as conservation areas must be evaluated regularly.2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Despite defragmentation and degradation, the Lombok bay mangrove forests in Kutai National Park still have high potential.3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The suitability of the mangrove forest area of ​​the Gulf of Lombok is still appropriate and worthy of being maintained as a conservation area, even though there are demands for regional development in the area.4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The importance of environmental education for the surrounding community must be continuously monitored, in order to increase awareness of the role of mangrove ecosystems in supporting people's lives.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key results:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Conformity, conservation, ecosystem, mangrove</p> <p>___________________________________________________________________________</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Research Objectives</p> <p>Mangrove forests provide a valuable ecosystem services for coastal communities, but these ecosystems are very sensitive to environmental changes (<a href="#_ENREF_1">1</a>). The pressure of Kutai National Park (KNP) mangrove forests has continue to increase because of the human activities for settlement, agriculture, and other activities (<a href="#_ENREF_2">2</a>) The existence of mangrove forest areas in KNP is increasingly threatened as the expanded of land use, the issue of enclaves for regional development by the local government. The Lombok bay mangrove area of Kutai National Park in the East Kutai Regency should be evaluated on its carrying capacity periodically. The area needs to be re-zoned in order to reduce the risk of the land clearing threats, especially for ponds and to accommodate local interests, especially the communities around the mangrove area. Based on that reason, data and information are needed. This study is to answer the latest phenomena related to regional development in the area of Lombok bay mangrove forests which continue reduce, and find out whether mangroves in the Lombok bay are worth of being preserved as conservation areas. This study objective was to determine and assess land suitability based on the vegetation condition and the mangrove forest environment carrying capacity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Materials and Methods</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study was carried out in the coastal area of ​​the mangrove forest in the Lombok bay, Kutai National Park in south Sangatta District, East Kutai Regency, East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. This study used an observation method and GPS was used to determine the sampling point coordinates. Sampling location choose based on consideration of characteristics, location access, and the mangroves distribution. The sampling was carried out at 6 stations, each station consisting of 12 sampling points / plots, so there are 72 plots in total. Direct observation was done at each station to collect the data of vegetation condition, salinity, tides, pH, main substrate and current velocity. The mangroves thickness is measured by GIS. The data was analyze using descriptive quantitative method. Land suitability analysis to determine the mangrove conservation area was analyzed based on the mangrove vegetation condition and several environmental parameters quality with four land suitability classes. The formula used to determine the suitability level based on several ecosystem components uses calculations (<a href="#_ENREF_3">3</a>) as follows: Regional suitability index / Final value is a sum of Weight of each criterion times&nbsp; by the Value of land suitability level. And than the value of suitability class were descripted.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Results</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The total number of mangrove species found was 12 species from 5 families. The highest tree density was found at station 4 with 127 individual total number and 1,058 trees/ha total density. The mangroves thickness in each location was varies. Mangrove forests that have the highest thickness are found at station 1 (1.44 km) and a low thickness found at station 2 (0.40 km). Although at station 1 has the highest thickness but the number of individuals found is very small , it shows that the forest has a lot of disturbance. The mangrove forests of Lombok bay have experienced an extensive land conversion. This is related to accessibility where the coastal settlements of KNP are generally located close to rivers and creeks i.e., Sangatta estuary, Lombok bay and Sangkima (<a href="#_ENREF_4">4</a>). Degradation of mangrove forests is still ongoing in some coastal or coastal areas, and continues to increase due to the surrounding community in fulfilling their daily needs (<a href="#_ENREF_5">5</a>). Based on the characteristics of the mangrove environment carrying capacity, it is known that at six stations belong to the class of suitability, which is appropriate (S2) with RSI ranging from 151 to 225.The mangrove trees density needs to be increased. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>12 mangrove species were found with 1.058 trees/ha mangroves density and 1,437 m mangroves thickness. The main substrate is clay, sand and sandy clay. The Tides was 0.90 to 1.55, pH was 9.37 to 10.89, current velocities was 0.25 to 0.56 m/sec, salinity was 2.81 to 4.18 ‰. The Conservation Suitability Index of six stations is classified as appropriate (S1) with the main limiting factor are tree density, pH and salinity. The level of land suitability for mangrove conservation has a possibility to be improved by mangroves planting to increase the mangroves thickness, density, and other environmental conditions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Acknowledgement</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The author would like to thank the Kutai National Park management unit for supporting and giving the opportunity for the author to carry out this research.&nbsp; The author also thanks to the lecturers and students of East Kutai STIPER in Sangatta who were really helpful in the field survey.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>References</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol> <li>Eddy S, Ridho MR, Iskandar I, Mulyana A. Community-Based Mangrove Forests Conservation for Sustainable Fisheries. Journal of Tropical Silviculture. 2016;7(3):S42-S7.</li> <li>Sayektiningsih T, Gunawan W, editors. Kondisi Sosial Masyarakat di sekitar Hutan Mangrove Taman Nasional Kutai, Kalimantan Timur. Proceedings of the Samboja Cambodia BPTKSDA Research Results Seminar, Research Institute for Natural Resources Conservation; 2012; Samboja, Indonesia: Balai Penelitian Teknologi Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, Kementerian Kehutanan.</li> <li>Wardhani MK. Analisis Kesesuaian Lahan Konservasi Hutan Mangrove di Pesisir Selatan, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Jurnal Kelautan. 2014;7(2):69-74.</li> <li>Budiarsa AA, Rizal S. Mapping and Deforestation Level of Mangrove Forest in Kutai National Park Base on Data Satelite Image of Landsat ETM and Vegetation Density. Journal of Tropical Fisheries Sciences. 2013;19(1):54-61.</li> <li>Asyari M, Udiansyah., Agyoyanuwiadi., Rayes ML. Management Policy Formulation of Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve Related With Mangrove Forest Degredation at South Borneo, Indonesia. International Journal of Conservation Science. 2017;8(1):157-64.</li> </ol> Liris Lis Komara Erny Poedjirahajoe Iin Sumbada Sulistyorini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-06-04 2019-06-04 1 3 19 22 10.31580/sps.v1i3.872