Determining the efficiency of rice production in the Kadawa rice cluster of Kano State, Nigeria


Rice Productivity, Extension, Fertilizer, improved seed, Kadawa

How to Cite

Tanko, Y. (2019). Determining the efficiency of rice production in the Kadawa rice cluster of Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of Economic Info, 6(4), 5-10.


In an efforts to increase the production of rice for food security and reduced deflation of foreign reserves, the Nigerian government eases access to fertilizer, extension services and improved rice seed. Therefore, the paper examines the effect of access to fertilizer and extension services infrastructures and improved rice seed on the productivity of rice farmers as well as identify their level productivity in the Kadawa rice cluster. A five Likert structured questionnaire randomly administered to a sample of 80 rice farmers in the 2018 crop season. The Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production model was used to analyze the data. The descriptive result shows that males (83.3%) dominated rice farming. The economically active age group are 53%, the married group are 65.2%, those with at least six years of experience in rice farming are 74.2%, and 22.7% attained tertiary education. Further, the stochastic frontier result shows that improve rice seed and extension services positively affect rice production, while fertilizer negatively affects rice production. Further, the result shows that years of experience in rice farming reduces technical inefficiency. While qualification, age, and marital status reduce rice production. Therefore, the study recommends the provision of educational facilities for quality education. Expanding extension workers’ services to farmers, since one visit per crop season seems to be not enough to offer the necessary information to farmers. Finally, to attract experienced, educated young married farmers to partake in rice cultivation in the study area.


Abdul-Rahaman, A., & Abdulai, A. (2018). Do farmer groups impact on farm yield and efficiency of smallholder farmers? Evidence from rice farmers in northern Ghana. Food Policy, 81(October), 95–105.
Abro, Z. A., Legesse Debele, B., & Kassie, M. (2019). The joint impact of improved maize seeds on productivity and efficiency: Implications for policy (RTG 1666 GlobalFood No. 28). Germany.
Adekunle, A. A., Onyibe, J. E., Ogunyinka, O. M., Omenesa, Z. E., Auta, S. J., & Kuyello, A. U. (2004). Agricultural information dissemination: An audience survey in Kano State. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, (April), 1–20.
Ahmed, A., Xu, S., Yu, W., & Wang, Y. (2017). Comparative Study on Factors Influencing Rice Yield in Niger State of Nigeria and Hainan of China. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research [IJAFR], 6(1), 15–25.
Aigner, D., Lovell, C. A. K., & Schmidt, P. (1977). Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models. Journal of Econometrics, 6(1), 21–37.
Ajani, O. I. Y., & Ugwu, P. C. (2008). Trend in agricultural economics. Asian Network for Scientific Information, 1(1), 1–7.
Al-Zahrani, K. H., Khan, A. Q., Baig, M. B., Mubushar, M., & Herab, A. H. (2019). Perceptions of wheat farmers toward agricultural extension services for realizing sustainable biological yields. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences.
Antle, J. M., Zhang, H., Mu, J. E., Abatzoglou, J., & Stöckle, C. (2018). Methods to assess between-system adaptations to climate change: Dryland wheat systems in the Pacific Northwest United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 253, 195–207.
Anupama, N., Murali, M., Jogaiah, S., & Amruthesh, K. N. (2014). Crude oligosaccharides from alternaria solani with bachilus subtlis enhenc defense activity and inudce resistance against early blight disease of tomato. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 5(7), 412–416.
Baten, A., & Hossain, I. (2014). Stochastic frontier model with distributional assumptions for rice production technical efficiency. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 16(3), 481–496.
Battese, G. E., & Corra, G. S. (1977). Estimation of a production function model: With application to the pastoral zone of Eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 21(3), 169–179. Retrieved from
Ben-Chendo, G. N., & Joseph, V. N. (2014). Comparative analysis of rice productivity of farmers on different land tenure systems in Imo State. International Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 2(3), 24–32.
Berhanu, K., & Poulton, C. (2014). The political economy of agricultural extension in Ethiopia: Economic growth and political control. Development Policy Review, 32(2), 197–213.
Binam, J. N., Tonyè, J., Wandji, N., Nyambi, G., & Akoa, M. (2004). Factors affecting the technical efficiency among smallholder farmers in the slash and burn agriculture zone of Cameroon. Food Policy, 29(5), 531–545.
Coelli, T. J., Rao, D. S. P., O’Donnell, C. J., & Battes, G. E. (2005). An introduction to efficiency and productivity analysis. Biometrics (Vol. 41).
Dercon, S., Gilligan, D. O., Hoddinott, J., & Woldehanna, T. (2009). The impact of agricultural extension and roads on poverty and consumption growth in fifteen Ethiopian villages. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 91(4), 1007–1021.
Duflo, E., Kremer, M., & Robinson, J. (2008). How high are rates of return to fertilizer? Evidence from field experiments in Kenya. Quarterly Journal of Econom, 121(2), 635–672. Retrieved from
Evenson, E. R. (2001). Agricultural production. In B. Gardner & G. Rauster (Eds.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics (Vol. 1, pp. 573–628). Elsevier Science B. V.
Garnett, T., Appleby, M. C., Balmford, A., Bateman, I. J., Benton, T. G., Bloomer, P., … Godfray, H. C. J. (2013). Sustainable intensification in agriculture: Premises and policies. Science Magazine, 341(July), 33–34.
Ghee-Thean, L., Ismail, M. M., & Harron, M. (2012). Measuring technical efficiency of Malaysian paddy farming: An applcation of stochastic production frontier approach. Journal Applied Sciences2, 12(15), 1602–1607.
Golan, A., & Kohli, H. (2013). Asean dynamism: Agricultural transformation and food security. Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies, 5(1), 3–21.
Jin, Y., & Huffman, W. E. (2016). Measuring public agricultural research and extension and Estimating their impacts on agricultural productivity: New insights from US evidence. Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom), 47(1), 15–31.
KNARDA. (2017). National Estimated Outputs, Area Cultivated, Yield, Output, and Specific Outputs from the FGD for 2016 Season. Kano State, Nigeria: Kano Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Hadejia Road, Kawo adjacent to Yankaba Motor Park, Nigeria.
Kodde, A. D., & Palm, C. F. (1986). Wald Criteria for Jointly Testing Equality and Inequality Restrictions Author (s): David A. Kodde and Franz C. Palm Published by: The Econometric Society Stable URL: Econometrica, 54(5), 1243–1248.
Maffioli, A., Ubfal, D., Vazquez-Bare, G., & Cerdan-Infantes, P. (2013). Improving technology adoption in agriculture through extension services: Evidence from Uruguay. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 5(1), 64–81.
Maji, A. T., Bashir, M., Oduba, A., Gbanguba, A. U., & Audu, S. D. (2015). Genotype X environment interaction and stability estimate forgGrain yield of upland rice genotypes in Nigeria. Journal of Rice Research, 03(02), 1–5.
Mandal, A., Patra, K. A., Singh, D., Swarup, A., & Masto, R. E. (2007). Effect of long-term application of manure and fertilizer on biological and biochemical activities in soil during crop development stages. Bioresource Technology, 98(18), 3585–3592.
Minten, B., & Barrett, C. B. (2008). Agricultural technology, productivity, and poverty in Madagascar. World Development, 36(5), 797–822.
Moshynets, O. V., Babenko, L. M., Rogalsky, S. P., Iungin, O. S., Foster, J., Kosakivska, I. V., … Spiers, A. J. (2019). Priming winter wheat seeds with the bacterial quorum sensing signal N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) shows potential to improve plant growth and seed yield. PLoS ONE, 14(2), 1–17.
Nin-pratt, A., & Yu, B. (2009). An updated look at the recovery of agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Contributed Paper Prepared for Presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China, August 16-22, 2009, (202).
Osanyinlusi, O. I., & Adenegan, K. O. (2016). The determinants of rice farmers’ productivity in Ekiti. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(2), 049–058.
Owens, T., Hoddinott, J., & Kinsey, B. (2003). The impact of agricultural extension on farm production in resettlement areas of Zimbabwe. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 51(2), 337–357.
Qaim, M., & Zilberman, D. (2003). Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science, 299(5608), 900–902.
Shiferaw, B. A., Kebede, T. A., & You, L. (2008). Technology adoption under seed access constraints and the economic impacts of improved pigeonpea varieties in Tanzania. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 39(3), 309–323.
Stewart, W. M., Dibb, D. W., Johnston, A. E., & Smyth, T. J. (2005). The contribution of commercial fertilizer nutrients to food production. Agronomy Journal, 97(1), 1–6.
Tanaka, A., Johnson, J. M., Senthilkumar, K., Akakpo, C., Segda, Z., Yameogo, L. P., … Saito, K. (2017). On-farm rice yield and its association with biophysical factors in sub-Saharan Africa. European Journal of Agronomy, 85, 1–11.
Tanko, Y., Kang, C. Y., & Islam, R. (2019). Mismanagement of the available irrigation potentials of rice farming in Kano State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 7(5), 28–37.
Tashikalma, A. K., Giroh, D. Y., & Ugbeshe, V. (2014). Swamp rice production in Ogoja Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria: An imperative for rice value chain of the agricultural transformation agenda. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, 2(August), 281–287.
Thirtle, C., Lin, L., & Piesse, J. (2003). The impact of research-led agricultural productivity growth on poverty reduction in Africa, Asia and latin America. World Development, 31(12), 1959–1975.
Tiwasing, P., Dawson, P., & Garrod, G. (2019). The relationship between micronutrient intake and labour productivity: Evidence from rice-farming households in Thailand. Outlook on Agriculture, 1–8.
Uduma, B. U., Samson, O. A., & Mure, U. A. (2016). Irrigation potentials and rice self-sufficiency in Nigeria: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(5), 298–309.
Verkaart, S., Mausch, K., Claessens, L., & Giller, K. E. (2019). A recipe for success? Learning from the rapid adoption of improved chickpea varieties in Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 17(1), 34–48.
Xue, W., Lindner, S., Dubbert, M., Otieno, D., Ko, J., Muraoka, H., … Tenhunen, J. (2017). Supplement understanding of the relative importance of biophysical factors in determination of photosynthetic capacity and photosynthetic productivity in rice ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 232, 550–565.
Zhang, T., Chen, A., Liu, J., Liu, H., Lei, B., Zhai, L., … Wang, H. (2017). Cropping systems affect paddy soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks (in rice-garlic and rice-fava systems) in temperate region of southern China. Science of the Total Environment, 609, 1640–1649.
Zhou, Q., Ju, C. xin, Wang, Z. qin, Zhang, H., Liu, L. jun, Yang, J. chang, & Zhang, J. hua. (2017). Grain yield and water use efficiency of super rice under soil water deficit and alternate wetting and drying irrigation. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16(5), 1028–1043.
Zhu, Z. L., & Chen, D. L. (2002). Nitrogen fertilizer use in China contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 63(2), 117–127.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.