the study examines the effect of reciprocal and direct instruction models on the learning outcomes at halu oleo university students. The results showes that the reciprocal instruction models was more effective in improving students social studies learning outcomes than direct learning. this study uses quasi-experiment with post-test control group design. the result of the study used descriptive and inferential analysis. The hypothesis testing use anova with LSD test. normality test using kolmogorov smirnov test and homogeneity test uses the levene test.
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